The views expressed in FMSO publications and reports are those of the authors and
do not necessarily represent the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.
ETHNO-NATIONAL CONFLICTS: RESEARCH SOURCES
by Dr. Timothy L. Sanz
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS.
Originally published in European Security,
Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer 1994), pp. 359-381
The New World Order has brought with it an unfortunate number of tragic
conflicts that have pitted one ethnic group against another, most notably in the
former Yugoslavia, but also in Nagorno-Karabakh, Moldova, South Ossetia, and
Tajikistan. Other regions of Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, or Western
Europe, although not currently experiencing actual armed conflict, could
potentially experience ethno-national political upheavals, separatist movements
or outright warfare in the future.
To aid researchers, scholars, governmental officials and others working on
the issue of ethno-national conflicts, this bibliography brings together sources
of information dealing with this critical topic of the 1990s. It lists citations to
articles and books published only from the mid 1980s to the present. Part 1
covers analyses of the causes and ramifications of these conflicts, their
management or resolution, legal and human rights issues, and military aspects
of such conflicts. Part 2 contains citations dealing primarily with specific
countries or regions. All citations are limited to European coverage with an
emphasis on Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The following
subsections are included:
Section 1. Analyses of Causes, Ramifications
Section 2. Conflict Resolution or Management
Section 3. Legal and Human Rights Issues
Section 4. Military Aspects
Section 5. Commonwealth of Independent States
B. Russian Federation or Former Soviet Union
C. Central Eurasia
D. Other C.I.S. countries
Section 6. Eastern Europe and the Baltic Countries
Section 7. Former Yugoslavia
Section 8. Western Europe
Under each subsection the citations are listed alphabetically by author or by
title if no author is indicated.
SECTION 1. ANALYSES OF CAUSES, RAMIFICATIONS
Beichman, Arnold. 'Fighting the Rule of Strangers'. Insight, 3 August 1992, p.
24. [Nationalism as a powerful political force]
Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew. 'A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing'. Foreign Affairs 72
(Summer 1993): pp. 110-22.
Boucher, Jerry, Dan Landis, and Karen Arnold Clark, eds. Ethnic Conflict:
International Perspectives. London: Sage, 1987.
Brass, Paul. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison. Newbury Park,
CA: Sage, 1992.
Burg, Steven L. 'Nationalism Redux: Through the Glass of the Post-Communist
States Darkly'. Current History 92 (April 1993): pp. 162-6. [Easy escalation of
Carment, David. 'The International Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict: Concepts,
Indicators, and Theory'. Journal of Peace Research 30/2 (February 1993): pp.
137-150. [Precise linkage between ethnic conflict and international conflict].
Crighton, Elizabeth et al. 'The Evolution of Protracted Ethnic Conflict: Group
Dominance and Political Underdevelopment in Northern Ireland and Lebanon'.
Comparative Politics 23 (January 1991): pp. 127-42. [A model explaining the
development and persistence of ethnic conflicts].
Croft, Stuart and Phil Williams, eds. 'Special Issue: European Security without
the Soviet Union'. Arms Control: Contemporary Security Policy 12 (December
1991): pp. 1-162. [Ethnic conflicts in the C.I.S., nationalism, and NATO's role].
De Silva, K. M. and R. J. May. Internationalization of Ethnic Conflict. London:
Dick, C. J., J. F. Dunn, and J. B. K. Lough. Potential Sources of Conflict in Post-
communist Europe. Camberley: Soviet Studies Research Centre, RMA
Eriksen, T. H. 'Ethnicity versus Nationalism'. Journal of Peace Research 28
(August 1991): pp. 263-78.
Frye, T. M. 'Ethnicity, Sovereignty and Transitions from Non-Democratic Rule.'
Journal of International Affairs 45 (Winter 1992): pp. 599-623.
Glynn, Patrick. 'The Age of Balkanization.' Commentary 96 (July 1993): pp. 21-5.
[Various separatist movements].
Gurr, Ted Robert. 'Ethnic Warfare and the Changing Priorities of Global
Security'. Mediterranean Quarterly (Winter 1990): pp. 82-98.
Howell, Llewellyn D. 'Ethnic Conflict Threatens International Stability'. USA
Today: The Magazine of the American Scene 122 (July 1993): p. 31. [The threat
of ethnic conflict to international stability].
Horowitz, Donald. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, Ca: University of
Huntington, Samuel P. 'The Clash of Civilizations?' Foreign Affairs 72/3 (Summer
1993): pp. 22-49. [Discussion of multiculturalism and tolerance of other cultures].
'The Ingathering Storm of Nationalism: Return of the Volksgeist'. New
Perspectives Quarterly 8/4 (Fall 1991): pp. 4-10. [Interview with Isaiah Berlin].
Kellas, J. G. The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity. New York: St. Martin's
Kogelfranz, Siegfried. 'Epidemie des Wahnsinns: Die Wiederkehr des
Nationalismus und seine Folgen'. Der Spiegel, 18 January 1993, pp. 136-41+.
[Nationalism as the triggering factor in 52 conflicts around the world in 1992].
Knight, Robin, et al. 'Home Sweet Homeland'. US News & World Report, 26 July
1993, pp. 38-42. [Factors motivating ethnic cleansing and conflicts in Bosnia,
South Africa and Vologda, Russia].
'Les Conflits apres la bipolarite'. Cultures & Conflits (Winter 1992/1993): pp. 3-
191. [Contains 10 articles on regional and ethnic conflicts].
Lewis, Paul. 'At U.N., Russian Compares Peril of Ethnic Strife to Nuclear War'.
New York Times, 29 September 1993, p. A4(N), A11(L). [Speech by Russian
Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev].
Mayall, James. 'Nationalism and International Security After the Cold War'.
Survival 34/1 (Spring 1992): pp. 19-35.
Messina, Anthony M. Ethnic and Racial Minorities in Advanced Industrial
Democracies. New York: Greenwood Press, 1992. [Ethnic conflicts, their social
and economic aspects and efforts to resolve them].
Moynihan, Daniel P. Pandemonium: Ethnicity in International Politics. Oxford;
New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
'Nationalism and Ethnic Particularism'. Tikkun 7 (Nov.-Dec. 1992): pp. 49-56.
[Ethnic conflict because of extreme nationalism].
Newman, S. 'Does Modernization Breed Ethnic Political Conflict?' World Politics
43 (April 1991): pp. 451-78.
Posen, Barry R. 'Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict'. Survival 35/1 (Spring
1993): pp. 27-47.
Robinson, Eugene. 'Communal Violence Likely to Endure in Post-Cold War Era'.
Washington Post, 18 August 1992, p. A9.
Ryan, Stephen. Ethnic Conflict and International Relations. Brookfield, VT:
Gower, 1990. [Possible explanations of ethnic unrest, conflict resolution, and UN
protection of minorities].
________. 'Explaining Ethnic Conflict: The Neglected International Dimensions'.
Review of International Studies 14/3 (July 1988): p. 161-77.
Samarasinghe, S.W.R. de A and Reed Coughlan, eds. Economic Dimensions of
Ethnic Conflict. New York: St. Martin's, 1991.
Shah, Sonia. 'The Roots of Ethnic Conflict'. Nuclear Times 10 (Spring 1992): pp.
Smith, Anthony D. 'Ethnic Sources of Nationalism'. Survival 35/1 (Spring 1993):
Smith, David M. Shared Space, Divided Space: Essays on Conflict and Territorial
Organization. London; Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.
Stavenhagen, Rodolfo. 'Ethnic Conflicts and Their Impact on International
Society'. International Social Science Journal 43 (February 1991): pp. 117-31.
Steiner, Henry J. 'Reporting Ethnic Conflict'. Nieman Reports 46/5 (Winter 1992):
pp. 14-18. [Journalists inadequately covering ethnic conflicts].
Welsh, David. 'Domestic Politics and Ethnic Conflict'. Survival 35/1 (Spring
1993): pp. 63-80.
Wiberg, Hakan. 'States and Nations as Challenges to Peace Research'. Journal
of Peace Research 28 (November 1991): pp. 337-43. [Ethno-national conflicts as
involving clashes between state and nation].
Williams, Colin H. Community Conflict, Partition and Nationalism. New York:
Wright, Robin. 'Ethnic Strife Owes More to Present than to History'. Los Angeles
Times, 27 May 1993, p. H1.
Wooster, Martin Morse. 'Nationalist Review'. Reason 25 (Aug.-Sept. 1993): pp.
64-6. [Lists ethnic conflicts around the world].
SECTION 2. CONFLICT RESOLUTION OR MANAGEMENT
Arnold, Hans. 'Der Balkan-Krieg und die Vereinten Nationen'. Europa-Archiv:
Zeitschrift fuer internationale Politik, 25 January 1993, pp. 33-40. [UN efforts to
end the Yugoslav conflict].
Azar, Edward E. The Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and
Cases. Brookfield, VT.: Gower Publishing Company, 1990.
________ and John Burton, eds. International Conflict Resolution. Boulder, CO:
Lynne Rienner, 1986.
Binder, David. 'As Ethnic Wars Multiply, U.S. Strives for a Policy'. New York
Times, 7 February 1993, sec. 1, p.1.
Blankoff-Scarr, Goldie. 'Can Ethnic Confrontation Be Mediated'. Revue des Pays
de l'Est 32/1-2 (1992): pp. 101-122.
Bonesteel, Ronald M. Deterring Ethno-National Conflicts. Fort Leavenworth,
KS.: Foreign Military Studies Office, 1993.
Carrington, Tim. 'Containing the Virus of Ethnic Violence May Be Clinton's Big
Security Challenge'. Wall Street Journal, 14 December 1992, p. A6.
Coakley, John, ed. 'Special Issue on the Territorial Management of Ethnic
Conflict'. Regional Politics and Policy 3 (Spring 1993): pp. 1-213. [8 articles on
responses of states to ethnic claims for territory].
________. 'The Resolution of Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Typology'.
International Political Science Review 13/4 (October 1992): pp. 343-58.
Cooper, Mary H. 'Foreign Policy Burden.' CQ Researcher, 20 August 1993, pp.
723-36+. [Debate over US involvement in ethnic conflicts around the world].
Copley, Gregory. 'Conflict Resolution in the Balkans: The Issue of Leaders and
Symbols'. Defense and Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 21 (March 1993): pp. 4-6.
'Ethnic Conflicts Draw UN Fact-Finding Efforts in Former Soviet Republics'. UN
Chronicle 29/4 (December 1992): p. 39. [In Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and
Fraser, N. M. et al. 'A Conflict Analysis of the Armenian-Azerbaijani Dispute'.
Journal of Conflict Resolution 34 (December 1990): pp. 652-77.
Fuller, Graham E. 'Neonationalism and Global Politics'. Current 344 (July 1992):
pp. 17-22. [Factors producing world instability and methods for reducing
Gurr, Ted R. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts.
Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1993. [Lists 233 politically-
active ethnic groups and assesses methods that have successfully reduced
Halliday, F. 'The Beast Awakes [Nationalism Must Be Challenged by a New
Internationalism]. New Statesman and Society, 30 March 1990, pp. 12-14.
Hopf, Ted. 'Managing Soviet Disintegration--A Demand for Behavioral Regimes'.
International Security 17/1 (Summer 1992): pp. 44-75.
Huber, Konrad and Milada Vachudova. 'The CSCE and Ethnic Conflict in the
East'. RFE/RL Research Report, 30 July 1993, pp. 30-6. [Struggles of the CSCE
to respond to the spread of ethnic conflict].
Jalali, Rita and Seymour Lipset. 'Racial and Ethnic Conflicts: A Global
Perspective'. Political Science Quarterly 107/4 (Winter 1992/93): pp. 585-606.
[Reasons why ethnic consciousness has not diminished and strategies of
countries to manage conflicts].
Maynes, Charles W. 'Containing Ethnic Conflict'. Foreign Policy 90 (Spring
1993): pp. 3-21.
McGarry, John and Brendan O'Leary, eds. The Politics of Ethnic Conflict
Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts. New York: Routledge,
McQueen, Michael. 'Bush Urges a Joint Effort on Ethnic Strife'. Wall Street
Journal, 10 July 1992, p. A14. [International cooperation to settle ethnic
Montville, Joseph V., ed. Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies.
Lexington, MA.: Lexington books, 1990.
Ross, Marc H. 'The Role of Evolution in Ethnocentric Conflict and Its
Management'. Journal of Social Issues 47 (Fall 1991): pp. 167-185. [Culturally
evolved predispositions which can help ethnic groups manage conflict].
Rothman, Jay. From Confrontation to Cooperation: Resolving Ethnic and
Regional Conflict. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1992.
________. 'Conflict Research and Resolution: Cyprus'. Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science (November 1991): pp. 95-108. [A
methodology used for conflict resolution training and intervention].
Rupesinghe, Kumar, ed. Internal Conflict and Governance. New York: St.
Martin's, 1992. [Case studies of conflicts and methods of peaceful resolution].
________. 'Theories of Conflict Resolution and Their Application to Protracted
Ethnic Conflict'. Bulletin of Peace Proposals (December 1987): pp. 527-39.
Ryan, S. 'Ethnic Conflict and the United Nations'. Ethnic and Racial Studies 13
(January 1990): pp. 25-49.
Smooha, S. and T. Hanf. 'The Diverse Modes of Conflict-Regulation in Deeply
Divided Societies'. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 33
(January/April 1992): pp. 26-47.
Stanovcic, Vojislav. 'Problems and Options in Institutionalizing Ethnic
Relations'. International Political Science Review 13/4 (October 1992): pp. 359-
Thomas, Timothy L. and Jacob W. Kipp. 'Ethnic Conflict: Scourge of the 1990s?'
Military Review 72 (December 1992): pp. 15-26. [Impact of the reemergence of
ethnic conflicts in post-communist Europe and ways of controlling them].
Tuohy, William. 'Europe Moves to Curb Ethnic Wars'. Los Angeles Times, 10
July 1992, p. A12. [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe].
Vayrynen, Raimo, ed. New Directions in Conflict Theory: Conflict Resolution and
Conflict Transformation. Newbury park, CA: Sage, 1991.
SECTION 3. LEGAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES
Black, Richard and Vaughan Robinson, eds. Geography and Refugees: Patterns
and Processes of Change. London: Belhaven Press, 1993. [Ethnic factors of
Cullen, Robert. 'Human Rights After the Cold War'. Harper's 286 (April 1993): pp
26-9. [Ethnic conflicts in the former Soviet Union].
________. 'Human Rights Quandary'. Foreign Affairs 71 (Winter 1992/93): pp. 79-
Eide, Asbjorn. 'Internal Conflicts under International Law: Focus on Ethnic
Conflict, Minority Rights and Human Rights'. Bulletin of Peace Proposals 18/4
(1987): pp. 515-25.
'Ethnic Conflict and Human Rights: A Comparative Perspective'. Bulletin of
Peace Proposals 18/4 (1987): pp. 495-659.
Goebel, Christopher M. 'A Unified Concept of Population Transfer'. Denver
Journal of International Law and Policy 21 (Fall 1992): pp. 29-53. [Forced
population transfers, self-determination, and genocide].
Human Rights Watch. Helsinki Watch Committee. Abuses Continue in the
Former Yugoslavia: Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina vol. 5, issue 11.
New York: Human Rights Watch, 1993.
________. Prosecute Now! Helsinki Watch Releases Eight Cases for War Crimes
Tribunal on Former Yugoslavia vol. 5, issue 12. New York: Human Rights Watch,
Maier, Charles S. 'Unsafe Haven'. New Republic, 12 October 1992, pp. 20-1.
[Treaty on ethnic relations in Europe suggested].
Newland, Kathleen. 'Ethnic Conflict and Refugees'. Survival 35/1 (Spring 1993):
Pyskir, Bohdan. 'Russia Has No Special Minority Rights Claim: Moscow's Efforts
to Protect Ethnic Russian Minorities Ignore the Human Rights of Millions of Non-
Russians in Former Soviet Republics'. Christian Science Monitor, 14 april 1993,
Rampola, Randolph R., ed. 'Symposium: The Rights of Ethnic Minorities'. Notre
Dame Law Review 66/5 (1991): pp. 1195-1568.
Samuels, Gertrude. 'Putting War Crimes on the UN Agenda'. New Leader, 8
March 1993, pp. 7-9. [For violations in the territory of the former Yugoslavia].
Sane, P. 'Human Rights and the Clash of Cultures'. New Perspectives Quarterly
10 (Summer 1993): pp. 27-8.
Stavenhagen, Rodolfo. The Ethnic Question: Conflicts, Development, and
Human Rights. New York: United Nations University, 1990.
Chace, James. 'Exit, NATO'. New York Times, 14 June 1993, p. 15A. [New
mission of controlling ethnic conflicts in Eastern Europe suggested].
Corelli, Rae. 'Europe's Nightmare: Nationalism Emerges as a Deadly Force'.
Maclean's, 13 July 1992, p. 33.
Crow, Suzanne. 'Russian Peacekeeping: Defense, Diplomacy, or Imperialism?'
RFE/RL Research Report, 18 September 1992, pp. 37-40.
________. 'The Theory and Practice of Peacekeeping in the Former USSR.'
RFE/RL Research Report, 18 September 1992, pp. 31-6.
Dobbs, Michael. 'Russian Troops Caught in Growing Ethnic Strife'. Washington
Post, 4 March 1992, p. A16. [In Azerbaijan and Moldova].
Gubarov, Vladimir. 'Geese, Geese . . . ' Moskovskiye Novosti, 28 February 1993,
p. A12 as trans. under the heading 'Mercenaries, Volunteers Fight in Ethnic
Conflicts' in Daily Report: Central Eurasia, FBIS-SOV-93-039 (2 March 1993), p.
Karp, Aaron. 'Arming Ethnic Conflict'. Arms Control Today 23 (Summer 1993):
pp. 8-13. [Ways of controlling supplies of arms to various groups].
'Les nouveaux mercenaires'. Le Nouvel Observateur 10-16 June 1993, pp. 4-13.
[Professional soldiers in regions of ethnic conflict, including former Yugoslavia].
Nathan, James A. 'What Does the Future Hold for the Russian Military?' USA
Today: The Magazine of the American Scene 122 (July 1993): pp. 29-30. [The
army's role in stopping ethnic conflicts].
Rosh, Robert. 'Ethnic Cleavages as a Component of Global Military
Expenditures'. Journal of Peace Research (February 1987): pp. 21-30.
Rotar, Igor'. 'Moscow Trying to Stop Tajik Strife, But Little Chance of
Compromise.' Nezavisimaya gazeta, 11 Nov 1992, pp. 1-2 as translated in Daily
Report: Central Eurasia, FBIS-SOV-92-220 (13 November 1992), p. 29.
Schmemann, Serge. 'Troops Arrive from Russia as Caucasus Fighting Flares'.
New York Times, 11 November 1992, p. A6.
Trenin, Dmitriy. 'Blazhenny mirotvortsy' [Blessed Are the Peacemakers] Novoye
Vremya no. 24 (June 1993): pp. 8-12 as trans. under the heading 'Russian
Approach to Peacekeeping Viewed' in Central Eurasia: Military Affairs, JPRS-
UMA-93-024 (14 July 1993), pp. 22-7. [Conflicts in Nagorno-Karabakh, Tajikistan,
Moldova, South Ossetia, and Abkhazia].
________. '"Blue Helmets" for the CIS?' New Times International no. 5 (February
1993): pp. 14-17 as reported under the heading 'Peacekeeping Mission Seen
Reinvigorating CIS Forces' in Central Eurasia: Military Affairs, JPRS-UMA-93-012
(7 April 1993), pp. 1-4. [The southern 'belt of instability' discussed].
Yevstafyev, Dmitriy G. 'Konflikty nizkoy intensivnosti i oboronnaya politika
Rossii' [Low Intensity Conflict and Russia's Defense Policy]. SSHA: Ekonomika,
politika, ideologiya (Mart 1993): pp. 33-41. [Some discussion of the conflicts in
SECTION 5. COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES OR FORMER SOVIET
Brock, Daniel. 'Europe's Forgotten War: Armenians and Azeri Fight for Control of
a Disputed Region'. Maclean's, 30 August 1993, pp. 26-7. [Nagorno-Karabakh].
Clines, Francis X. 'Ethnic War in the Caucasus Finds New Depths of Carnage'.
New York Times, 8 March 1992, sec. 1, p. 1. [Nagorno-Karabakh].
Derrick, Jonathan. 'Feud across the Caucasus'. World & I: A Chronicle of Our
Changing Era 5 (August 1990): pp. 113-19.
Elliott, Dorinda and Steve LeVine. 'An Ethnic Nightmare in the Caucasus.'
Newsweek, 7 December 1992, p. 34. [Russia's North Ossetian Republic].
'Fiery Food, Fiery Tempers: The Transcaucasus.' The Economist, 24 July 1993,
Fuller, Elizabeth. 'Russia's Diplomatic Offensive in the Transcaucasus'. RFE/RL
Research Report, 1 October 1993, pp. 30-4.
________. 'Transcaucasia: Ethnic Strife Threatens Democratization'. RFE/RL
Research Report, 1 January 1993, pp. 17-24.
________. 'Mediators for Transcaucasia's Conflicts'. World Today (London) 49
(May 1993): pp. 89-92. [Nagorno-Karabakh and conflict between Abkhazia and
South Ossetia with Georgia].
Henze, Paul B. The Transcaucasus in Transition. Santa Monica, CA: Rand
Corporation, 1991. [Ethnic unrest and independence movements in Georgia,
Armenia, and Azerbaijan].
Hiro, Dilip. 'The Question of Azerbaijan'. The Nation, 14 September 1992, pp.
Iskandaryan, Alexander. 'Nagorny Karabakh: More Stimuli for War than for
Peace'. New Times International no. 18 (1993): pp. 6-8.
Janjigian, Vahan. 'Avoiding a Yugoslavia in the Caucasus'. Christian Science
Monitor, 20 November 1992, p. 19.
Kachia, Janri. 'L'echeveau caucasien'. Politique internationale: Revue
trimestrielle (Summer 1993): pp. 17-36. [Political situation in the Caucasus and
possible sources of conflict].
Kuvaldin, Viktor. 'Caucasian Options for Russia and Georgia'. Moscow News, 25
October 1992, p. 5.
Lief, Louise. 'Fire, Fury and Nationalism: Chaos Spreads on Russia's Southern
Border'. U.S. News & World Report, 6 July 1992, pp. 44-8.
Manutscharjan, Aschot. 'Nagornyj Karabach im Kampf um das
Selbstbestimmungsrecht: eine Darstellung aus armenischer Sicht'. Osteuropa 42
(November 1992): pp. 951-65. [Conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia and the
prospects for national self-determination].
'Pact Reported on Ending Ethnic War on Caucasus'. New York Times, 16 March
1992, p. A8. [Cease-fire agreement in conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh].
Shevelyov, Mikhail. 'The Colonizer's Lot'. Moscow News, 6 December 1992, p.5.
[Ethnic war in Ossetia].
Suny, Ronald. 'The Revenge of the Past: Socialism and Ethnic Conflict in
Transcaucasia'. New Left Review (1990): pp. 5-34.
[History of ethnic conflicts and secessionist aspirations in Georgia, Armenia, and
B. RUSSIAN FEDERATION OR FORMER SOVIET UNION
Anokhin, Pavel. 'What Divides Us'. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 11 June 1992, p. 4 as
trans. under the heading 'Ways to Tackle Ethnic Conflicts Discussed' in Daily
Report: Central Eurasia, FBIS-SOV-92-114 (12 June 1992), pp. 7-8.
Armstrong, John A. 'Nationalism in the Former Soviet Empire'. Problems of
Communism 41 (Jan./April 1992): pp. 121-35.
Batyrshin, Radik. 'Framing a New Nationalities Policy for Russia'. Current Digest
of the Post-Soviet Press no. 39, 28 October 1992, pp. 3-4. [Report on the
Conference on Nationalities Policy in the Russian Federation].
Bowers, Stephen R. 'Approaches to the Study of Soviet Ethnic Conflict'. Journal
of Ethnic Studies 19 (Winter 1992): pp. 113-16.
Crowther, William. 'The Politics of Ethno-national Mobilization: Nationalism and
Reform in Soviet Moldovia'. Russian Review 50 (April 1991): pp.183-202.
Denber, Rachel, ed. The Soviet Nationality Reader: The Disintegration in
Context. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1992. [Nationality questions before and after
the breakup of the Soviet Union].
Drobkov, Vladislav. US Plan to Intervene in Russia's Affairs Alleged.' Current
Digest of the Post-Soviet Press no. 33, 15 September 1993, p. 11.
Dutter, L. E. 'Theoretical Perspectives on Ethnic Political Behavior in the Soviet
Union'. Journal of Conflict Resolution 34 (June 1990): pp. 311-34.
Goble, Paul. 'Serbians' Success Echoes in Russia'. New York Times, 13 August
1992, p. A19. [Possible spread of ethnic violence].
Henze, Paul B. Ethnic Dynamics and Dilemmas of the Russian Republic. Santa
Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1991. [Includes demographic analysis of the 86
Lapidus, Gail W. et al. From Union to Commonwealth: Nationalism and
Separation in the Soviet Republics. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1992.
Laqueur, W. 'Russian Nationalism'. Foreign Affairs 71 (Winter 1992/93): pp. 103-
'L'Europe dans le tourbillon des nationalites'. Cosmopolitiques: Forum
internationale de politique (May 1990): pp. 11-66. [Nationalistic ethnic conflicts
in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia and military aspects of German
McDonald, H. 'Tremors in Tartary: Islamic Republics Assert Identity as Moscow
Falters'. Far East Economic Review, 24 May 1990, pp. 27-8.
Oliphant, J. C. Nationalities Problems in the Former Soviet Union. Camberley:
Soviet Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandhurst, 1992.
Radvanyu, J. 'And What if Russia Breaks up? Towards New Regional Divisions'.
Post-Soviet Geography 33 (February 1992): pp. 69-77.
Rakowska-Harmstone, T. 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost: A Perspective on
Soviet Ethnic Relations'. Journal of International Affairs 45 (Winter 1992): pp.
Rotar, Igor. 'What is the Place of Russians in Russia, CIS?' Current Digest of the
Post-Soviet Press, 26 May 1993, pp.12-13. [Status of Russians in Central Asia].
Rupesinghe, Kumar et al., eds. Ethnicity and Conflict in a Post-Communist
World: The Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China. New York: St. Martin's,
Sanders, A. 'Siberian Shakeout: Russians Flee as Tuvans Press for Sovereignty'.
Far East Economic Review, 13 September 1990, p. 30.
Schmemann, Serge. 'Yeltsin Suggests Russian Regional Role'. New York Times,
1 March 1993, p. A7. [Military intervention in conflicts in the former Soviet
________. 'Russia and its Nasty Neighborhood Brawls'. New York Times, 18
October 1992, sec. 4, p. E1.
________. 'Ethnic Battles Flaring in Former Soviet Fringe'. New York Times, 24
May 1992, p. 10.
Shapiro, Margaret. 'Russia Sees Itself as Region's Mediator: Official Minimizes
U.S. Role as Peacemaker in Republics of Former Soviet Union'. Washington
Post, 14 August 1993, p. A17.
Smith, Mark. The Soviet Fault Line: Ethnic Insecurity and Territorial Dispute in
the Former USSR. London: R.U.S.I. for Defense Studies, 1991.
Snyder, Jack. 'Nationalism and the Crisis of the Post-Soviet State'. Survival 35/1
(Spring 1993): pp. 5-26.
Tilly, Charles and Lee Walker, eds. 'Special Issue on Ethnic Conflict in the Soviet
Union'. Theory and Society: Renewal and Critique in Social Theory 20 (October
1991): pp. 569-721.
Warhola, James W. 'The Religious Dimension of Ethnic Conflict in the Soviet
Union'. International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society 5 (Winter 1991): pp.
C. CENTRAL EURASIA
Dubnov, Arkady. 'The Tajikistan Catastrophe They Don't Talk about in Russia'.
New Times International no. 6 (1993): pp. 10-13. [Background to the conflict and
the role of neighboring Uzbekistan].
'Ethnic Conflicts Draw UN fact-finding Efforts in Former Soviet Republics'. UN
Chronicle (December 1992): p. 39.
Mirsky, George I. 'Central Asia's Emergence'. Current History 91 (October 1992):
Palmer, Elizabeth A. 'On the Edge of Ethnic Unrest'. Congressional Quarterly
Weekly Report, 13 March 1993, p. 612. [Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and
Quinn-Judge, S. 'Soviet Central Asia: Ethnic Tinder Box'. Far East Economic
Review, 12 July 1990, p. 27.
Rashid, A. 'Call of Chauvinism: Ethnic Rivalries a Major Threat to New
Republics'. Far East Economic Review, 9 January 1992, p. 15.
________. 'Central Asia: The Tajik Time Bomb; Fear of Civil War Grips the
Region'. Far East Economic Review, 15 October 1992, p. 22.
Rumer, B. Z. 'The Gathering Storm in Central Asia'. Orbis 37 (Winter 1993): pp.
'Russian Sahibs Go Home.' Economist, 8 August 1992, pp. 29-30.
Tadjbakhsh, Shahrbanou. 'The Bloody Path of Change: The Case of Post-Soviet
Tajikistan'. Harriman Institute Forum 11 (July 1993): pp. 1-10.
D. OTHER C.I.S. COUNTRIES
Aleksashenko, Sergei et al. 'National Economies: Hit by Ethnic Conflicts'.
Moscow News, 29 November 1992, p. 11.
Bremmer, Ian. "Ethnic Issues in Crimea'. RFE/RL Research Report, 30 April
1993, pp. 24-8. [Autonomy claims of the Tatars].
Erlanger, Steven. 'Yeltsin Voices Russia's Anger at Ethnic Wars Roiling the Old
Soviet Empire'. New York Times, 22 June 1992, p. A3. [Warning about ethnic
fighting in Moldova].
Gabanyi, Anneli Ute. 'Die Moldaurepublik zwischen Wende und Rueckwendung'.
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