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ETHNO-NATIONAL CONFLICTS: RESEARCH SOURCES

by Dr. Timothy L. Sanz
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS.

Originally published in European Security,
Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer 1994), pp. 359-381

The New World Order has brought with it an unfortunate number of tragic conflicts that have pitted one ethnic group against another, most notably in the former Yugoslavia, but also in Nagorno-Karabakh, Moldova, South Ossetia, and Tajikistan. Other regions of Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, or Western Europe, although not currently experiencing actual armed conflict, could potentially experience ethno-national political upheavals, separatist movements or outright warfare in the future.

To aid researchers, scholars, governmental officials and others working on the issue of ethno-national conflicts, this bibliography brings together sources of information dealing with this critical topic of the 1990s. It lists citations to articles and books published only from the mid 1980s to the present. Part 1 covers analyses of the causes and ramifications of these conflicts, their management or resolution, legal and human rights issues, and military aspects of such conflicts. Part 2 contains citations dealing primarily with specific countries or regions. All citations are limited to European coverage with an emphasis on Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The following subsections are included:

                              PART 1
          Section 1.    Analyses of Causes, Ramifications
          Section 2.    Conflict Resolution or Management
          Section 3.    Legal and Human Rights Issues
          Section 4.    Military Aspects


                                  PART 2
          Section 5.    Commonwealth of Independent States                     
    		    A.  Transcaucasia
                    B.  Russian Federation or Former Soviet Union
                    C.  Central Eurasia
                    D.  Other C.I.S. countries
          Section 6.    Eastern Europe and the Baltic Countries
          Section 7.    Former Yugoslavia
          Section 8.    Western Europe

Under each subsection the citations are listed alphabetically by author or by title if no author is indicated.


PART 1

SECTION 1. ANALYSES OF CAUSES, RAMIFICATIONS


Beichman, Arnold.  'Fighting the Rule of Strangers'.  Insight, 3 August 1992, p.
24. [Nationalism as a powerful political force]

Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew.  'A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing'.  Foreign Affairs 72
(Summer 1993): pp. 110-22. 

Boucher, Jerry, Dan Landis, and Karen Arnold Clark, eds.  Ethnic Conflict:
International Perspectives.  London: Sage, 1987.

Brass, Paul.  Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison.  Newbury Park,
CA: Sage, 1992.

Burg, Steven L.  'Nationalism Redux: Through the Glass of the Post-Communist
States Darkly'.  Current History 92 (April 1993): pp. 162-6. [Easy escalation of
ethnic conflicts].  

Carment, David.  'The International Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict: Concepts,
Indicators, and Theory'.  Journal of Peace Research 30/2 (February 1993): pp.
137-150.  [Precise linkage between ethnic conflict and international conflict].  

Crighton, Elizabeth et al.  'The Evolution of Protracted Ethnic Conflict: Group
Dominance and Political Underdevelopment in Northern Ireland and Lebanon'. 
Comparative Politics 23 (January 1991): pp. 127-42.  [A model explaining the
development and persistence of ethnic conflicts].  

Croft, Stuart and Phil Williams, eds.  'Special Issue: European Security without
the Soviet Union'.  Arms Control: Contemporary Security Policy 12 (December
1991): pp. 1-162.  [Ethnic conflicts in the C.I.S., nationalism, and NATO's role].

De Silva, K. M. and R. J. May.  Internationalization of Ethnic Conflict.  London:
Pinter, 1991.

Dick, C. J., J. F. Dunn, and J. B. K. Lough.  Potential Sources of Conflict in Post-
communist Europe.  Camberley: Soviet Studies Research Centre, RMA
Sandhurst, 1992.

Eriksen, T. H.  'Ethnicity versus Nationalism'.  Journal of Peace Research 28
(August 1991): pp. 263-78.

Frye, T. M.  'Ethnicity, Sovereignty and Transitions from Non-Democratic Rule.' 
Journal of International Affairs 45 (Winter 1992): pp. 599-623. 

Glynn, Patrick.  'The Age of Balkanization.'  Commentary 96 (July 1993): pp. 21-5. 
[Various separatist movements].  
 
Gurr, Ted Robert.  'Ethnic Warfare and the Changing Priorities of Global
Security'.  Mediterranean Quarterly (Winter 1990): pp. 82-98.

Howell, Llewellyn D.  'Ethnic Conflict Threatens International Stability'.  USA
Today: The Magazine of the American Scene 122 (July 1993): p. 31.  [The threat
of ethnic conflict to international stability].

Horowitz, Donald.  Ethnic Groups in Conflict.  Berkeley, Ca: University of
California, 1985.

Huntington, Samuel P.  'The Clash of Civilizations?' Foreign Affairs 72/3 (Summer
1993): pp. 22-49. [Discussion of multiculturalism and tolerance of other cultures]. 
 

'The Ingathering Storm of Nationalism: Return of the Volksgeist'.  New
Perspectives Quarterly 8/4 (Fall 1991): pp. 4-10. [Interview with Isaiah Berlin].

Kellas, J. G.  The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity.  New York: St. Martin's
Press, 1991.

Kogelfranz, Siegfried.  'Epidemie des Wahnsinns: Die Wiederkehr des
Nationalismus und seine Folgen'.  Der Spiegel, 18 January 1993, pp. 136-41+. 
[Nationalism as the triggering factor in 52 conflicts around the world in 1992].  

Knight, Robin, et al.  'Home Sweet Homeland'.  US News & World Report, 26 July
1993, pp. 38-42.  [Factors motivating ethnic cleansing and conflicts in Bosnia,
South Africa and Vologda, Russia].

'Les Conflits apres la bipolarite'.  Cultures & Conflits (Winter 1992/1993): pp. 3-
191.  [Contains 10 articles on regional and ethnic conflicts].  
 
Lewis, Paul.  'At U.N., Russian Compares Peril of Ethnic Strife to Nuclear War'. 
New York Times, 29 September 1993, p. A4(N), A11(L).  [Speech by Russian
Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev].  

Mayall, James.  'Nationalism and International Security After the Cold War'. 
Survival 34/1 (Spring 1992): pp. 19-35.

Messina, Anthony M.  Ethnic and Racial Minorities in Advanced Industrial
Democracies.  New York: Greenwood Press, 1992. [Ethnic conflicts, their social
and economic aspects and efforts to resolve them].  

Moynihan, Daniel P.  Pandemonium: Ethnicity in International Politics.  Oxford;
New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

'Nationalism and Ethnic Particularism'. Tikkun 7 (Nov.-Dec. 1992): pp. 49-56.
[Ethnic conflict because of extreme nationalism].  

Newman, S.  'Does Modernization Breed Ethnic Political Conflict?'  World Politics
43 (April 1991): pp. 451-78.

Posen, Barry R. 'Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict'.  Survival 35/1 (Spring
1993): pp. 27-47.

Robinson, Eugene.  'Communal Violence Likely to Endure in Post-Cold War Era'. 
Washington Post, 18 August 1992, p. A9.

Ryan, Stephen.  Ethnic Conflict and International Relations.  Brookfield, VT:
Gower, 1990.  [Possible explanations of ethnic unrest, conflict resolution, and UN
protection of minorities].  

________.  'Explaining Ethnic Conflict: The Neglected International Dimensions'. 
Review of International Studies 14/3 (July 1988): p. 161-77.

Samarasinghe, S.W.R. de A and Reed Coughlan, eds.  Economic Dimensions of
Ethnic Conflict.  New York: St. Martin's, 1991.

Shah, Sonia.  'The Roots of Ethnic Conflict'.  Nuclear Times 10 (Spring 1992): pp.
9-15. 

Smith, Anthony D.  'Ethnic Sources of Nationalism'.  Survival 35/1 (Spring 1993):
pp. 48-62.

Smith, David M.  Shared Space, Divided Space: Essays on Conflict and Territorial
Organization.  London; Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

Stavenhagen, Rodolfo.  'Ethnic Conflicts and Their Impact on International
Society'.  International Social Science Journal 43 (February 1991): pp. 117-31.

Steiner, Henry J.  'Reporting Ethnic Conflict'.  Nieman Reports 46/5 (Winter 1992):
pp. 14-18.  [Journalists inadequately covering ethnic conflicts].

Welsh, David. 'Domestic Politics and Ethnic Conflict'.  Survival 35/1 (Spring
1993): pp. 63-80.  

Wiberg, Hakan.  'States and Nations as Challenges to Peace Research'.  Journal
of Peace Research 28 (November 1991): pp. 337-43.  [Ethno-national conflicts as
involving clashes between state and nation].  

Williams, Colin H.  Community Conflict, Partition and Nationalism.  New York:
Routledge, 1989.

Wright, Robin.  'Ethnic Strife Owes More to Present than to History'.  Los Angeles
Times, 27 May 1993, p. H1. 

Wooster, Martin Morse.  'Nationalist Review'.  Reason 25 (Aug.-Sept. 1993): pp.
64-6. [Lists ethnic conflicts around the world].

SECTION 2. CONFLICT RESOLUTION OR MANAGEMENT

Arnold, Hans.  'Der Balkan-Krieg und die Vereinten Nationen'.  Europa-Archiv:
Zeitschrift fuer internationale Politik, 25 January 1993, pp. 33-40.   [UN efforts to
end the Yugoslav conflict].  

Azar, Edward E.  The Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and
Cases.  Brookfield, VT.: Gower Publishing Company, 1990.

________ and John Burton, eds.  International Conflict Resolution.  Boulder, CO:
Lynne Rienner, 1986.

Binder, David.  'As Ethnic Wars Multiply, U.S. Strives for a Policy'.  New York
Times, 7 February 1993, sec. 1, p.1.  

Blankoff-Scarr, Goldie.  'Can Ethnic Confrontation Be Mediated'.  Revue des Pays
de l'Est  32/1-2 (1992): pp. 101-122.

Bonesteel, Ronald M.  Deterring Ethno-National Conflicts.  Fort Leavenworth,
KS.: Foreign Military Studies Office, 1993.

Carrington, Tim.  'Containing the Virus of Ethnic Violence May Be Clinton's Big
Security Challenge'.  Wall Street Journal, 14 December 1992, p. A6.

Coakley, John, ed.  'Special Issue on the Territorial Management of Ethnic
Conflict'.  Regional Politics and Policy 3 (Spring 1993): pp. 1-213.  [8 articles on
responses of states to ethnic claims for territory].  

________.  'The Resolution of Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Typology'. 
International Political Science Review 13/4 (October 1992): pp. 343-58.
  
Cooper, Mary H.  'Foreign Policy Burden.'  CQ Researcher, 20 August 1993, pp.
723-36+.  [Debate over US involvement in ethnic conflicts around the world].  

Copley, Gregory.  'Conflict Resolution in the Balkans: The Issue of Leaders and
Symbols'.  Defense and Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 21 (March 1993): pp. 4-6.

'Ethnic Conflicts Draw UN Fact-Finding Efforts in Former Soviet Republics'.  UN
Chronicle 29/4 (December 1992): p. 39. [In Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and
Tajikistan].

Fraser, N. M. et al.  'A Conflict Analysis of the Armenian-Azerbaijani Dispute'. 
Journal of Conflict Resolution 34 (December 1990): pp. 652-77.
 
Fuller, Graham E.  'Neonationalism and Global Politics'.  Current 344 (July 1992):
pp. 17-22. [Factors producing world instability and methods for reducing
conflicts]. 

Gurr, Ted R.  Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts. 
Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1993.  [Lists 233 politically-
active ethnic groups and assesses methods that have successfully reduced
conflict]. 
  
Halliday, F.  'The Beast Awakes [Nationalism Must Be Challenged by a New
Internationalism].  New Statesman and Society, 30 March 1990, pp. 12-14.

Hopf, Ted. 'Managing Soviet Disintegration--A Demand for Behavioral Regimes'. International Security 17/1 (Summer 1992): pp. 44-75. Huber, Konrad and Milada Vachudova. 'The CSCE and Ethnic Conflict in the East'. RFE/RL Research Report, 30 July 1993, pp. 30-6. [Struggles of the CSCE to respond to the spread of ethnic conflict]. Jalali, Rita and Seymour Lipset. 'Racial and Ethnic Conflicts: A Global Perspective'. Political Science Quarterly 107/4 (Winter 1992/93): pp. 585-606. [Reasons why ethnic consciousness has not diminished and strategies of countries to manage conflicts]. Maynes, Charles W. 'Containing Ethnic Conflict'. Foreign Policy 90 (Spring 1993): pp. 3-21. McGarry, John and Brendan O'Leary, eds. The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts. New York: Routledge, 1993. McQueen, Michael. 'Bush Urges a Joint Effort on Ethnic Strife'. Wall Street Journal, 10 July 1992, p. A14. [International cooperation to settle ethnic conflicts]. Montville, Joseph V., ed. Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies. Lexington, MA.: Lexington books, 1990. Ross, Marc H. 'The Role of Evolution in Ethnocentric Conflict and Its Management'. Journal of Social Issues 47 (Fall 1991): pp. 167-185. [Culturally evolved predispositions which can help ethnic groups manage conflict]. Rothman, Jay. From Confrontation to Cooperation: Resolving Ethnic and Regional Conflict. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1992. ________. 'Conflict Research and Resolution: Cyprus'. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (November 1991): pp. 95-108. [A methodology used for conflict resolution training and intervention]. Rupesinghe, Kumar, ed. Internal Conflict and Governance. New York: St. Martin's, 1992. [Case studies of conflicts and methods of peaceful resolution]. ________. 'Theories of Conflict Resolution and Their Application to Protracted Ethnic Conflict'. Bulletin of Peace Proposals (December 1987): pp. 527-39. Ryan, S. 'Ethnic Conflict and the United Nations'. Ethnic and Racial Studies 13 (January 1990): pp. 25-49. Smooha, S. and T. Hanf. 'The Diverse Modes of Conflict-Regulation in Deeply Divided Societies'. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 33 (January/April 1992): pp. 26-47. Stanovcic, Vojislav. 'Problems and Options in Institutionalizing Ethnic Relations'. International Political Science Review 13/4 (October 1992): pp. 359- 79. Thomas, Timothy L. and Jacob W. Kipp. 'Ethnic Conflict: Scourge of the 1990s?' Military Review 72 (December 1992): pp. 15-26. [Impact of the reemergence of ethnic conflicts in post-communist Europe and ways of controlling them]. Tuohy, William. 'Europe Moves to Curb Ethnic Wars'. Los Angeles Times, 10 July 1992, p. A12. [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe]. Vayrynen, Raimo, ed. New Directions in Conflict Theory: Conflict Resolution and Conflict Transformation. Newbury park, CA: Sage, 1991.

SECTION 3. LEGAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES

Black, Richard and Vaughan Robinson, eds.  Geography and Refugees: Patterns
and Processes of Change.  London: Belhaven Press, 1993.  [Ethnic factors of
forced migration].  
  
Cullen, Robert.  'Human Rights After the Cold War'.  Harper's 286  (April 1993): pp
26-9. [Ethnic conflicts in the former Soviet Union].
________.  'Human Rights Quandary'.  Foreign Affairs 71 (Winter 1992/93): pp. 79-
88.

Eide, Asbjorn.  'Internal Conflicts under International Law: Focus on Ethnic
Conflict, Minority Rights and Human Rights'.  Bulletin of Peace Proposals 18/4
(1987): pp. 515-25.

'Ethnic Conflict and Human Rights: A Comparative Perspective'.  Bulletin of
Peace Proposals 18/4 (1987): pp. 495-659.

Goebel, Christopher M.  'A Unified Concept of Population Transfer'.  Denver
Journal of International Law and Policy 21 (Fall 1992): pp. 29-53.  [Forced
population transfers, self-determination, and genocide].  

Human Rights Watch.  Helsinki Watch Committee.  Abuses Continue in the
Former Yugoslavia: Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina vol. 5, issue 11. 
New York: Human Rights Watch, 1993.

________.  Prosecute Now! Helsinki Watch Releases Eight Cases for War Crimes
Tribunal on Former Yugoslavia vol. 5, issue 12.  New York: Human Rights Watch,
1993.

Maier, Charles S.  'Unsafe Haven'.  New Republic, 12 October 1992, pp. 20-1. 
[Treaty on ethnic relations in Europe suggested].  

Newland, Kathleen.  'Ethnic Conflict and Refugees'.  Survival 35/1 (Spring 1993):
pp. 81-101.

Pyskir, Bohdan.  'Russia Has No Special Minority Rights Claim: Moscow's Efforts
to Protect Ethnic Russian Minorities Ignore the Human Rights of Millions of Non-
Russians in Former Soviet Republics'.  Christian Science Monitor, 14 april 1993,
p. 19.
 
Rampola, Randolph R., ed.  'Symposium: The Rights of Ethnic Minorities'.  Notre
Dame Law Review 66/5 (1991): pp. 1195-1568.

Samuels, Gertrude.  'Putting War Crimes on the UN Agenda'.  New Leader, 8
March 1993, pp. 7-9.  [For violations in the territory of the former Yugoslavia].  

Sane, P.  'Human Rights and the Clash of Cultures'.  New Perspectives Quarterly
10 (Summer 1993): pp. 27-8.

Stavenhagen, Rodolfo.  The Ethnic Question: Conflicts, Development, and
Human Rights.  New York: United Nations University, 1990.

SECTION 4. MILITARY ASPECTS

Chace, James.  'Exit, NATO'.  New York Times, 14 June 1993, p. 15A.  [New
mission of controlling ethnic conflicts in Eastern Europe suggested].  

Corelli, Rae.  'Europe's Nightmare: Nationalism Emerges as a Deadly Force'. 
Maclean's, 13 July 1992, p. 33.

Crow, Suzanne.  'Russian Peacekeeping: Defense, Diplomacy, or Imperialism?' 
RFE/RL Research Report, 18 September 1992, pp. 37-40.

________.  'The Theory and Practice of Peacekeeping in the Former USSR.' 
RFE/RL Research Report, 18 September 1992, pp. 31-6.

Dobbs, Michael.  'Russian Troops Caught in Growing Ethnic Strife'.  Washington
Post, 4 March 1992, p. A16.  [In Azerbaijan and Moldova].  

Gubarov, Vladimir.  'Geese, Geese . . . ' Moskovskiye Novosti, 28 February 1993,
p. A12 as trans. under the heading 'Mercenaries, Volunteers Fight in Ethnic
Conflicts' in Daily Report: Central Eurasia, FBIS-SOV-93-039 (2 March 1993), p.
19.

Karp, Aaron.  'Arming Ethnic Conflict'.  Arms Control Today 23 (Summer 1993):
pp. 8-13. [Ways of controlling supplies of arms to various groups].  

'Les nouveaux mercenaires'.  Le Nouvel Observateur 10-16 June 1993, pp. 4-13. 
[Professional soldiers in regions of ethnic conflict, including former Yugoslavia].  

Nathan, James A.  'What Does the Future Hold for the Russian Military?'  USA
Today: The Magazine of the American Scene 122 (July 1993): pp. 29-30.  [The
army's role in stopping ethnic conflicts].  

Rosh, Robert.  'Ethnic Cleavages as a Component of Global Military
Expenditures'.  Journal of Peace Research (February 1987): pp. 21-30.

Rotar, Igor'.  'Moscow Trying to Stop Tajik Strife, But Little Chance of
Compromise.'  Nezavisimaya gazeta, 11 Nov 1992, pp. 1-2 as translated in Daily
Report: Central Eurasia, FBIS-SOV-92-220 (13 November 1992), p. 29.

Schmemann, Serge.  'Troops Arrive from Russia as Caucasus Fighting Flares'. 
New York Times, 11 November 1992, p. A6.

Trenin, Dmitriy.  'Blazhenny mirotvortsy' [Blessed Are the Peacemakers] Novoye
Vremya no. 24 (June 1993): pp. 8-12 as trans. under the heading 'Russian
Approach to Peacekeeping Viewed' in Central Eurasia: Military Affairs, JPRS-
UMA-93-024 (14 July 1993), pp. 22-7.  [Conflicts in Nagorno-Karabakh, Tajikistan,
Moldova, South Ossetia, and Abkhazia].  

________.  '"Blue Helmets" for the CIS?' New Times International no. 5 (February
1993): pp. 14-17 as reported under the heading 'Peacekeeping Mission Seen
Reinvigorating CIS Forces' in Central Eurasia: Military Affairs, JPRS-UMA-93-012
(7 April 1993), pp. 1-4.  [The southern 'belt of instability' discussed].  
  
Yevstafyev, Dmitriy G.  'Konflikty nizkoy intensivnosti i oboronnaya politika
Rossii' [Low Intensity Conflict and Russia's Defense Policy].  SSHA: Ekonomika,
politika, ideologiya (Mart 1993): pp. 33-41. [Some discussion of the conflicts in
central Eurasia].   

PART 2

SECTION 5. COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES OR FORMER SOVIET UNION

A. TRANSCAUCASIA

Brock, Daniel.  'Europe's Forgotten War: Armenians and Azeri Fight for Control of
a Disputed Region'.  Maclean's, 30 August 1993, pp. 26-7. [Nagorno-Karabakh].  

Clines, Francis X.  'Ethnic War in the Caucasus Finds New Depths of Carnage'. 
New York Times, 8 March 1992, sec. 1, p. 1.  [Nagorno-Karabakh].

Derrick, Jonathan.  'Feud across the Caucasus'.  World & I: A Chronicle of Our
Changing Era 5 (August 1990): pp. 113-19.

Elliott, Dorinda and Steve LeVine.  'An Ethnic Nightmare in the Caucasus.' 
Newsweek, 7 December 1992, p. 34.  [Russia's North Ossetian Republic].  

'Fiery Food, Fiery Tempers: The Transcaucasus.'  The Economist, 24 July 1993,
pp. 55-6. 

Fuller, Elizabeth.  'Russia's Diplomatic Offensive in the Transcaucasus'.  RFE/RL
Research Report, 1 October 1993, pp. 30-4.
 
________.  'Transcaucasia: Ethnic Strife Threatens Democratization'.  RFE/RL
Research Report, 1 January 1993, pp. 17-24.

________.  'Mediators for Transcaucasia's Conflicts'.  World Today (London) 49
(May 1993): pp. 89-92.  [Nagorno-Karabakh and conflict between Abkhazia and
South Ossetia with Georgia].  

Henze, Paul B.  The Transcaucasus in Transition.  Santa Monica, CA: Rand
Corporation, 1991.  [Ethnic unrest and independence movements in Georgia,
Armenia, and Azerbaijan].  

Hiro, Dilip.  'The Question of Azerbaijan'.  The Nation, 14 September 1992, pp.
241-44.

Iskandaryan, Alexander.  'Nagorny Karabakh: More Stimuli for War than for
Peace'.  New Times International no. 18 (1993): pp. 6-8.

Janjigian, Vahan.  'Avoiding a Yugoslavia in the Caucasus'.  Christian Science
Monitor, 20 November 1992, p. 19.

Kachia, Janri.  'L'echeveau caucasien'.  Politique internationale: Revue
trimestrielle (Summer 1993): pp. 17-36.  [Political situation in the Caucasus and
possible sources of conflict].  

Kuvaldin, Viktor.  'Caucasian Options for Russia and Georgia'.  Moscow News, 25
October 1992, p. 5.

Lief, Louise.  'Fire, Fury and Nationalism: Chaos Spreads on Russia's Southern
Border'.  U.S. News & World Report, 6 July 1992, pp. 44-8.

Manutscharjan, Aschot.  'Nagornyj Karabach im Kampf um das
Selbstbestimmungsrecht: eine Darstellung aus armenischer Sicht'.  Osteuropa 42
(November 1992): pp. 951-65.  [Conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia and the
prospects for national self-determination].  

'Pact Reported on Ending Ethnic War on Caucasus'.  New York Times, 16 March
1992, p. A8.  [Cease-fire agreement in conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh].  

Shevelyov, Mikhail.  'The Colonizer's Lot'.  Moscow News, 6 December 1992, p.5. 
[Ethnic war in Ossetia].  

Suny, Ronald.  'The Revenge of the Past: Socialism and Ethnic Conflict in
Transcaucasia'.  New Left Review (1990): pp. 5-34.
[History of ethnic conflicts and secessionist aspirations in Georgia, Armenia, and
Azerbaijan].

B. RUSSIAN FEDERATION OR FORMER SOVIET UNION

Anokhin, Pavel.  'What Divides Us'.  Rossiyskaya gazeta, 11 June 1992, p. 4 as
trans. under the heading 'Ways to Tackle Ethnic Conflicts Discussed' in Daily
Report: Central Eurasia, FBIS-SOV-92-114 (12 June 1992), pp. 7-8.

Armstrong, John A.  'Nationalism in the Former Soviet Empire'.  Problems of
Communism 41 (Jan./April 1992): pp. 121-35.

Batyrshin, Radik.  'Framing a New Nationalities Policy for Russia'.  Current Digest
of the Post-Soviet Press no. 39, 28 October 1992, pp. 3-4. [Report on the
Conference on Nationalities Policy in the Russian Federation].

Bowers, Stephen R.  'Approaches to the Study of Soviet Ethnic Conflict'.  Journal
of Ethnic Studies 19 (Winter 1992): pp. 113-16.

Crowther, William.  'The Politics of Ethno-national Mobilization: Nationalism and
Reform in Soviet Moldovia'.  Russian Review 50 (April 1991): pp.183-202.

Denber, Rachel, ed.  The Soviet Nationality Reader: The Disintegration in
Context.  Boulder, CO: Westview, 1992.  [Nationality questions before and after
the breakup of the Soviet Union].  

Drobkov, Vladislav.  US Plan to Intervene in Russia's Affairs Alleged.'  Current
Digest of the Post-Soviet Press no. 33, 15 September 1993, p. 11. 

Dutter, L. E.  'Theoretical Perspectives on Ethnic Political Behavior in the Soviet
Union'.  Journal of Conflict Resolution 34 (June 1990): pp. 311-34.

Goble, Paul.  'Serbians' Success Echoes in Russia'.  New York Times, 13 August
1992, p. A19.  [Possible spread of ethnic violence].  

Henze, Paul B. Ethnic Dynamics and Dilemmas of the Russian Republic.  Santa
Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1991. [Includes demographic analysis of the 86
territorial units].  

Lapidus, Gail W. et al.  From Union to Commonwealth: Nationalism and
Separation in the Soviet Republics.  Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1992.

Laqueur, W.  'Russian Nationalism'.  Foreign Affairs 71 (Winter 1992/93): pp. 103-
16.

'L'Europe dans le tourbillon des nationalites'.  Cosmopolitiques: Forum
internationale de politique (May 1990): pp. 11-66.  [Nationalistic ethnic conflicts
in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia and military aspects of German
reunification].  

McDonald, H.  'Tremors in Tartary: Islamic Republics Assert Identity as Moscow
Falters'.  Far East Economic Review, 24 May 1990, pp. 27-8.

Oliphant, J. C.  Nationalities Problems in the Former Soviet Union.  Camberley:
Soviet Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandhurst, 1992.

Radvanyu, J.  'And What if Russia Breaks up?  Towards New Regional Divisions'. 
Post-Soviet Geography 33 (February 1992): pp. 69-77.

Rakowska-Harmstone, T.  'Chickens Coming Home to Roost: A Perspective on
Soviet Ethnic Relations'.  Journal of International Affairs 45 (Winter 1992): pp.
519-48. 

Rotar, Igor.  'What is the Place of Russians in Russia, CIS?'  Current Digest of the
Post-Soviet Press, 26 May 1993, pp.12-13.  [Status of Russians in Central Asia].  

Rupesinghe, Kumar et al., eds.  Ethnicity and Conflict in a Post-Communist
World: The Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China.  New York: St. Martin's,
1992.  

Sanders, A.  'Siberian Shakeout: Russians Flee as Tuvans Press for Sovereignty'. 
Far East Economic Review, 13 September 1990, p. 30.

Schmemann, Serge.  'Yeltsin Suggests Russian Regional Role'.  New York Times,
1 March 1993, p. A7.  [Military intervention in conflicts in the former Soviet
Union].

________.  'Russia and its Nasty Neighborhood Brawls'.  New York Times, 18
October 1992, sec. 4, p. E1.

________.  'Ethnic Battles Flaring in Former Soviet Fringe'.  New York Times, 24
May 1992, p. 10.

Shapiro, Margaret.  'Russia Sees Itself as Region's Mediator: Official Minimizes
U.S. Role as Peacemaker in Republics of Former Soviet Union'.  Washington
Post, 14 August 1993, p. A17.

Smith, Mark.  The Soviet Fault Line: Ethnic Insecurity and Territorial Dispute in
the Former USSR.  London: R.U.S.I. for Defense Studies, 1991.

Snyder, Jack.  'Nationalism and the Crisis of the Post-Soviet State'.  Survival 35/1
(Spring 1993): pp. 5-26.

Tilly, Charles and Lee Walker, eds.  'Special Issue on Ethnic Conflict in the Soviet
Union'.  Theory and Society: Renewal and Critique in Social Theory 20 (October
1991): pp. 569-721.

Warhola, James W.  'The Religious Dimension of Ethnic Conflict in the Soviet
Union'.  International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society 5 (Winter 1991): pp.
249-70.

C. CENTRAL EURASIA

Dubnov, Arkady.  'The Tajikistan Catastrophe They Don't Talk about in Russia'. 
New Times International no. 6 (1993): pp. 10-13.  [Background to the conflict and
the role of neighboring Uzbekistan].  

'Ethnic Conflicts Draw UN fact-finding Efforts in Former Soviet Republics'.  UN
Chronicle (December 1992): p. 39. 

Mirsky, George I.  'Central Asia's Emergence'.  Current History 91 (October 1992):
pp. 334-8.

Palmer, Elizabeth A.  'On the Edge of Ethnic Unrest'.  Congressional Quarterly
Weekly Report, 13 March 1993, p. 612. [Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and
Uzbekistan].  

Quinn-Judge, S.  'Soviet Central Asia: Ethnic Tinder Box'.  Far East Economic
Review, 12 July 1990, p. 27.

Rashid, A.  'Call of Chauvinism: Ethnic Rivalries a Major Threat to New
Republics'.   Far East Economic Review, 9 January 1992, p. 15.  

________.  'Central Asia: The Tajik Time Bomb; Fear of Civil War Grips the
Region'.  Far East Economic Review, 15 October 1992, p. 22.

Rumer, B. Z.  'The Gathering Storm in Central Asia'.  Orbis 37 (Winter 1993): pp.
89-105.

'Russian Sahibs Go Home.'  Economist, 8 August 1992, pp. 29-30.  

Tadjbakhsh, Shahrbanou.  'The Bloody Path of Change: The Case of Post-Soviet
Tajikistan'.  Harriman Institute Forum 11 (July 1993): pp. 1-10.  

D. OTHER C.I.S. COUNTRIES

Aleksashenko, Sergei et al.  'National Economies: Hit by Ethnic Conflicts'. 
Moscow News, 29 November 1992, p. 11.

Bremmer, Ian.  "Ethnic Issues in Crimea'.  RFE/RL Research Report, 30 April
1993, pp. 24-8.  [Autonomy claims of the Tatars].  

Erlanger, Steven.  'Yeltsin Voices Russia's Anger at Ethnic Wars Roiling the Old
Soviet Empire'.  New York Times, 22 June 1992, p. A3.  [Warning about ethnic
fighting in Moldova].  

Gabanyi, Anneli Ute.  'Die Moldaurepublik zwischen Wende und Rueckwendung'. 
Suedosteuropa (Munich) 42/3-4 (1993): pp. 163-207.  [Political situation, potential
for conflict and the Bessarabian question].  

King, Charles.  'Moldova and the New Bessarabian Questions'.  World Today 49
(July 1993): pp. 135-9.

Lamont, Neil V.  Territorial Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict: The Moldovan Case. 
Fort Leavenworth, KS.: Foreign Military Studies Office, 1993.

'One Ethnic War after Another'.  New York Times, 6 July 1992, p. A12.  [Editorial
decrying Europeans not dealing with the Trans-Dniester conflict in Moldova].  

Radu, Michael.  'Moldova: The Next Ethnic Powder Keg'?  World & I: A Chronicle
of Our Changing Era 7 (July 1992): pp. 144-9. 

Rotar, Igor.  'Ukraine: Will Transcarpathia Follow Its Own Path?  Ethnopolitical
Problems of Far Western Ukraine'.  Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press 45, 31
March 1993, pp. 28-9.

Shaw, D. J. B. and M. J. Bradshaw.  'Problems of Ukrainian Independence'.  Post-
Soviet Geography 33 (January 1992): pp. 10-20.

Sneider, Daniel.  'Ukrainians Worry Serb Win Augurs Conflict with Russia'.  
Christian Science Monitor, 26 May 1993, p. 1.

Socor, Vladimir.  'Moldova's "Dniester" Ulcer.'  RFE/RL Research Report, 1
January 1993, pp. 12-16.  [Secessionist region on the left bank of the Dniester
River].  

Stewart, Susan.  'Ukraine's Policy Towards Its Ethnic Minorities'.  RFE/RL
Research Report, 10 September 1993, pp. 55-62.

SECTION 6. EASTERN EUROPE AND THE BALTIC COUNTRIES

Bowers, Stephen R.  Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe.  London: Research
Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, 1992.

Brown, J. F.   'Crisis and Conflict in Eastern Europe'.  RFE/RL Research Report,
29 May 1992, pp. 1-9.

Bugajski, Janusz.  Nations in Turmoil: Conflict and Cooperation in Eastern
Europe.  Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

Cadzow, John F., ed.  Transylvania: The Roots of Ethnic Conflict.  Kent, OH.:
Kent State University Press, 1983.

Clemens, Walter C.  Baltic Independence and Russian Empire.  London:
Macmillan, 1991.  

Cowell, Alan.  'Pope, in Baltics, Facing Ethnic Issue'.  New York Times, 11 Sept.
1993, p. 3.

Dakin, Mary I.  Nationalism and Democratization: the Case of Ethnic Russians in
Newly Independent Latvia.  Washington, D.C.: National Council for Soviet and
East European Research, 1992.

Deak, I.  'Uncovering Eastern Europe's Dark History'.  Orbis 34 (Winter 1990): pp.
51-65.

Gabanyi, Anneli Ute.  'Nationalismus in Rumanien: vom Revolutionspatriotismus
zur chauvinistischen Restauration'.  Suedosteuropa: Zeitschrift fuer
Gegenwartsforschung 41/5 (1992): pp. 275-92.

Gallagher, T.  'Vatra Romaneasca and Resurgent Nationalism in Romania'. 
Ethnic and Racial Studies 15 (October 1992): pp. 570-98.

Hanson, Philip.  'Estonia's Narva Problem, Narva's Estonian Problem'.  RFE/RL
Research Report, 30 April 1993, pp. 17-23.
[Ethnic Russian enclave].  

'Harsh Words'.  Economist, 31 October 1992, pp. 50-1.  [Hungarian Government
protests concerning the treatment of Hungarians in Slovakia, Romania, and
Serbia].

Hiatt, Fred.  'Narva, Estonia: Spark in an Ethnic Tinderbox'.  Washington Post, 9
October 1993, p. A21.

Haskell, G. K.  'Democratic Stirrings in Bulgaria'.  Dissent 37 (September 1990):
pp. 156-7.

Hatschikjan, Magarditsch.  'Eastern Europe: Nationalist Pandemonium'. 
Aussenpolitik: German Foreign Affairs Review 42/3 (1991): pp. 211-20. [Potential
conflicts discussed including disputed areas along the Soviet border].  
 
Hockenos, Paul.  'Heirs to Ceausescu'.  New Statesman & Society, 19 June 1992,
p. 16. [Ethnic tension in Romania].

________.  'Free to Hate'.  New Statesman & Society, 12 April 1991, pp. 18-19.
[Romania].  

Howe, S.  'The New Xenophobes.'  New Statesman & Society, 3 May 1991, pp. 12-
14. 

Isenhour, Thomas L.  'A Look into the Stubborn Roots of Ethnic Intolerance'. 
Christian Science Monitor, 3 September 1993, p. 19.  [Ethnic prejudices in
Bulgaria].  

Jean, C. M.  Behind the Eurocentric Veils.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts
Press, 1991.  [Ethnocentrism in Europe].

Krickus, Richard J.  'Latvia's "Russian Question".'  RFE/RL Research Report, 30
April 1993, pp. 29-34.

Lendvai, P.  'Central Europe: What about the Hungarian Minorities'.  World Today
48 (December 1992): pp. 215-16.

Lingle, C.  'Collectivism and Collective Choice: Conflicts Between Class
Formation and Ethnic Nationalism'.  Ethnic Groups 9/3 (1992): pp. 191-201.

'Little Local Wars?'  Economist, 13 March 1993, pp. 17-20. [Mismatch of borders
and people].  

Ludwig, Klemens.  Europa zerfaellt: Voelker ohne Staaten und der neue
Nationalismus.  Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1993.  [Nationalist movements
throughout Europe].  

Mommsen, Margareta, ed.  Nationalismus in Osteuropa: gefahrvolle Wege in die
Demokratie.  Beck, 1992.  [Potential threats of nationalism to democratization].  

Schoepflin, G.  'Nationalism and National Minorities in East and Central Europe'. 
Journal of International Affairs 45 (Summer 1991): pp. 51-65.

Tagliabue, John.  'Old Tribal Rivalries in Eastern Europe Pose Threat of
Infection'.  New York Times, 13 October 1991, sec. 4, p. E2.
 
Vetik, Raivo.  'Ethnic Conflict and Accommodation in Post-Communist Estonia'. 
Journal of Peace Research 30/3 (August 1993): pp. 271-280.

Walzer, M.  'The New Tribalism: Notes on a Difficult Problem'.  Dissent 39 (Spring
1992): pp. 164-71.

Wettig, Gerhard.  Nation und Konflikt in Osteuropa nach dem Zusammenbruch
des Kommunismus.  Bonn: Bundesinstitut fuer Ostwissenschaftliche und
Internationale Studien, 1992.  [Confrontations between nation states and
minorities since the fall of communism].  

Whitney, Craig R.  'East Europe's Frustrations Finds Target: Immigrants'.  New
York Times, 13 November 1992, p. A1.

Williams, Carol J.  'Transylvania Ignites Fires of Nationalism: Romanian Region
Harbors Ethnic Hungarians Who Have Long Resisted Assimilation'.  Los Angeles
Times, 11 January 1991, p. A5.

SECTION 7. FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

'Balkan Perspective.'  Strategic Review 21 (Winter 1993): pp. 26-39.

Brown, James F. Nationalism, Democracy, and Security in the Balkans. 
Brookfield VT.: Dartmouth Publishing Company, 1992.

Christopher, W.  'New Steps Towards Conflict Resolution in the Former
Yugoslavia'.  US Department of State Dispatch, 15 February 1993, pp. 81-2.
 
Cohen, Lenard J.  Broken Bonds: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia.  Boulder,
CO.: Westview Press, 1993.
  
________.  'The Disintegration of Yugoslavia'.  Current History: A World Affairs
Journal 91 (November 1992): 369-75.
[Deep antagonisms among the diverse ethnic groups analyzed].

Copley, Gregory.  'Hiding Genocide'.  Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy,
31 December 1992, pp. 4-9.

Denitch, B.  'Tragedy in the Former Yugoslavia: Nationalism Bezerk'.  Dissent 40
(Winter 1993): pp. 26-34.

Dominis, Iva and Ivo Bicanic.  'Refugees and Displaced Persons in the Former
Yugoslavia'.  RFE/RL Research Report, 15 January 1993, pp. 1-4.

Dragnich, Alex N.  Serbs and Croats: The Struggle in Yugoslavia.  New York:
Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1992.

Garde, Paul.  'The Yugoslav Quagmire'.  UNESCO Courier (June 1993): pp. 39-43.

Glenny, Misha.  The Fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War.  London; New
York: Penguin, 1992.

Gow, James.  'One Year of War in Bosnia and Herzegovina'.  RFE/RL Research
Report, 4 June 1993, pp. 1-13.  [Roles played by the various armies in the
conflict].  

Horwitz, Tony.  'Islamic Leaders Call for Action in Bosnia'.  Wall Street Journal, 3
December 1992, p. A7.

Job, Cvijeto.  'Yugoslav's Ethnic Furies'.  Foreign Policy 92 (Fall 1993): pp. 52-75.  

Karger, Adolf.  'Der Gescheiterte Vance-Owen-Plan und die ethnisch-
geographischen Strukturen von Bosnien-Herzegowina'.  Osteuropa 43 (August
1993): pp. 783-91.

Krizan, Mojmir.  'Nationalismen in Jugoslawien: von postkommunistischer
nationaler Emanzipation zum Krieg'.  Osteuropa: Zeitschrift fuer
Gegenwartsfragen des Ostens 42 (February 1992): pp. 121-40.

Lynch, Allen and Reneo Lukic.  'Russian Foreign Policy and the Wars in the
Former Yugoslavia'.  RFE/RL Research Report, 15 October 1993, pp. 25-32.

Miedlig, Hans-Michael.  'Grunde und Hintergrunde der aktuellen
Nationalitatenkonflikte in den jugoslawischen Landern'  Suedosteuropa:
Zeitschrift fuer Gegenwartsforschung 41/2 (1992): pp. 116-30.
Moore, Patrick.  'A Return of the Serbian-Croatian Conflict?'  RFE/RL Research
Report, 22 October 1993, pp. 16-20.

________.  'The Widening Warfare in the Former Yugoslavia'.  RFE/RL Research
Report, 1 January 1993, pp. 1-11. 

Nelson, Daniel N.  'European Security Toward the Year 2000:  A Balkan
Perspective'.  Strategic Review 21/1 (Winter 1993): p. 26-39.

Perry, Duncan.  'The Republic of Macedonia and the Odds for Survival'.  RFE/RL
Research Report (November 1992): pp. 12-19. [Nationalism and the Albanian
question].  

Pfaff, William.  'Invitation to War'.  Foreign Affairs 72/3 (Summer 1993): pp. 97-
109.  [Causes of the conflict in the Balkans].

Ramet, Sabrina P.  Nationalism and Federalism in Yugoslavia, 1962-1991.  2nd ed.
Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992.  [Inter-ethnic and inter-republic
conflicts up to Oct. 1991].

Rosenberger, Chandler.  'The Next Balkan War.'  National Review, 6 September
1993, pp. 22-6.  [Continued conflict in Krajina].

Roskin, Michael G.  'The Bosnian-Serb Problem: What We Should and Should Not
Do'.  Parameters 22 (Winter 92/93): pp. 21-32.

Stone, Norman.  'The Balkan Muslims'.  The National Interest 30 (Winter 1992/93):
p. 51-5.

Wohlstetter, Albert.  'The Way Out'.  Wall Street Journal, 2 July 1993, p. A6.

Woodward, Susan L.  'The Yugoslav Wars'.  Brookings Review 10 (Fall 1992): p.
54+.

SECTION 8. WESTERN EUROPE

Attali, Jacques.  "Europe's Descent into Tribalism'.  New Perspectives Quarterly
9/4 (Fall 1992): pp. 38-40.  [History of ethnic conflict in Europe].  

'Catching the Plague'.  Economist, 21 November 1992, p. 63. [Violence against
immigrants and illegal aliens in Spain].  

Clark, Andrew.  'It's Dangerous to be Different'.  World Press Review 40 (February
1993): pp. 21-2.  [Violence against refugees].

Duve, Freimut.  'Germany Can't Be an Island'.  New Perspectives Quarterly 9/1
(Winter 1992): pp. 54-6.  [Need for a new immigration policy for entire Europe].

'Europa amara.'  Citta Nuova 7/1-2 (1992): pp. 1-94.  [17 articles on ethnic
conflicts in Europe, historical backgrounds, and future prospects].  

Heilbrunn, Jacob.  'What German Crisis?  Don't Panic'.  The New Republic, 21
December 1992, pp. 21-4.

'Heimat EC'.  New Perspectives Quarterly 10 (Winter 1993): pp. 4-43.  [13 articles
on German unity and the rise of ethnic conflict].  
 
Hobsbawm, Eric.  'Whose Fault-line Is It Anyway?'  New Statesman & Society, 24
April 1992, pp. 23-6.  [Dangers of nationalism and separatist movements].

Joffe, J.  'The New Europe: Yesterday's Ghosts'.  Foreign Affairs 72/1 (1993): pp.
29-43.

Junger, M.  'Intergroup Bullying and Racial Harassment in the Netherlands'. 
Sociology and Social Research 74 (January 1990): pp. 65-72.
  
Kinzer, Stephen.  'U.N. Official Warns Europe on Ethnic Strife'.  New York Times,
18 May 1993, p. A6. [Jose-Maria Mendiluce].   

Neaman, E. and H. Funke.  'Germany: The Nationalist Backlash'.  Dissent 40
(Winter 1993): pp. 11-15.

Phillips, Andrew.  'The Gates Slam Shut'.  Maclean's, 14 June 1993, pp. 18-20. 
[Ethnic violence in Germany and the rest of Europe].  

Scheepers, P. et al.  'Ethnocentrism in the Netherlands: A Typological Analysis'. 
Ethnic and Racial Studies 12 (July 1989): pp. 289-308.

Snyder, J.  'Averting Anarchy in the New Europe'.  International Security 14
(September 1990): pp. 5-41.

Thomas, P.  'Belgium's North-South Divide and the Walloon Regional Problem'. 
Geography 76 (January 1990): pp. 36-50.

'Tongue-tied Belgium'.  Economist, 19 December 1987, p. 16.  [Ethnic conflict and
bilingualism].  

Von Weizsacker, Richard.  'Foreigners in the Land of Beethoven.'  New
Perspectives Quarterly 10/1 (Winter 1993): pp. 7-9.   

Xia, Lin.  'Germany: Why an Increase in Violence Against Foreigners'.  Beijing
Review, 21 December 1992, pp. 15-16.

Zariski, R.  'Ethnic Extremism Among Ethnoterritorial Minorities in Western
Europe: Dimensions, Causes, and Institutional Responses'.  Comparative Politics
21 (April 1989): pp. 253-72.