The views expressed in FMSO publications and reports are those of the authors and do not
necessarily represent the official policy or position of the Department of the Army,
Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

Nuclear Terrorism: Selected Research Materials

by Dr. Timothy L. Sanz
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS.

Orginally Published in
Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement,
Vol. 1, No. 3, Winter 1992

Fear of nuclear terrorism has intensified as a consequence of the collapse of the Soviet Union and concerns that some of this country's formidable nuclear arsenal might fall into the hands of terrorists, that its nuclear scientists might be available to the highest bidder, or that one former republic might blackmail or use the weapons against another. For those security analysts interested in these concerns this bibliography contains a separate subheading of nearly 30 citations on this topic.

The bibliography also contains subheadings concerning the assessment of the threat in general, the threat posed by individual nation states, countermeasures that might be employed in the event of an actual terrorist act, and issues involving the security of nuclear power plants.

The bibliography contains citations published since 1980 and is arranged in reverse chronological order under each of the subheadings. The NTIS numbers given refer to documents obtainable from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (703) 487-4630.


"Scientist Urges Tight Security to Combat Nuclear Terrorism." Reuter Library Report, 16 January 1992, file 611 Dialog Information Services, Inc., 0892159.

Krauthammer, Charles. "ABM Can Save Topeka from Nuclear Terrorists." St. Louis Post Dispatch, 11 August 1991, file 494 Dialog Information Services, Inc., 06043668.

Stober, Dan. "'Nuclear Firefighters' Waiting, Ready to Respond to Terrorism." San Jose Mercury News, 15 January 1991, file 634 Dialog Information Services, Inc., 06015198. [Concerns the U.S. Nuclear Emergency Search Team (NEST)].

Beres, Louis Rene. "Confronting Nuclear Terrorism." Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 14 (Fall 1990): 129-154.

________. "Responding to the Threat of Nuclear Terrorism. In International Terrorism: Characteristics, Causes, Controls, ed. Charles W. Kegley, Jr. New York: St. Martin's, 1990.

Horner, Daniel and Deborah J. Holland. "SDI No Answer to Nuclear Terrorism." Washington Post, 28 March 1990.

Tuller, David. "FEMA [Federal Emergency Management Agency] Drill Heavily Criticized Bay's Mock Terrorist Attack." San Francisco Chronicle, 9 January 1990, file 640 Dialog Information Services, Inc., 05501508.

Barth, Fritz J. "Stemming Nuclear Terrorism." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 115 (December 1989): 54-59.

Leventhal, Paul and Yonah Alexander, eds. Preventing Nuclear Terrorism: The Report and Papers of the International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1987.

Runner, B. DOD (Department of Defense) Response to Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents. Directive. Washington, DC: Assistant Secretary of Defense (Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict), 24 March 1987 [NTIS number PB90146788XSP] [Updates policies and procedures for a DOD response to IND incidents].

Cranston, Alan. "The Nuclear Terrorist State." In Terrorism: How the West Can Win, ed. B. Netanyahu, 177-181. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1986.

"Report on Nuclear Terrorism (International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism)." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 42 (December 1986): 38-44.

Sullivan, John P. and Peter T. Caram. "Planning the Police Response to Chemical, Biological, or Nuclear Terrorism and Hazardous Material Incidents." TVI Report 7, no. 1 (1986): 31-36.

Heim, M. "Reason as Response to Nuclear Terror." Philosophy Today 28, no. 4 (1984): 300-307.

Northrop, J. A., B. E. Freeman, and R. E. Duff. Program to Develop and Codify Urban Nuclear Weapon Effects. Final Report. La Jolla, CA: S-Cubed, 1983. [NTIS number ADA1414820XSP] [A program assessing the effects of a detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in a highly built-up urban area].

Jenkins, Brian M. "International Cooperation in Locating and Recovering Stolen Nuclear Materials." Terrorism 6, no. 4 (1983): 561-577.

Schelling, Thomas C. "Can Nuclear Terrorism Be Neutralized?" In International Terrorism: Challenge and Response, ed. B. Netanyahu, 155-159. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1981.


Schlefer, Jonathan. "Nuclear Terrorism." Technology Review 94 (April 1991): 5.

Post, Jerold M. "Superterrorism: Biological, Chemical, and Nuclear." Terrorism 13, no. 2 (1990): 165-168.

Buck, K. A. "Superterrorism--Biological, Chemical and Nuclear." Terrorism 12, no. 6 (1989): 433-434.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. International Terrorism: A Compilation of Major Laws, Treaties, Agreements, and Executive Documents: A Report. Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, USGPO, 1987.

Denton, Jeremiah. "International Terrorism--The Nuclear Dimension." Terrorism 9, no. 2 (1987): 113-124.

Friedlander, Robert A. "Terrorism and Nuclear Decisions." Society 23, no. 2 (1986): 59-62.


Walker, William. "Nuclear Weapons and the Former Soviet Republics." International Affairs 68 (April 1992): 255-277.

Sneider, Daniel and Chrystyne Lapychak. "Ex-Soviet Army Assures West on Nuclear Arms." The Christian Science Monitor, 18 March 1992. [Russia denies accusation of Ukrainian President Kravchuk that control of nuclear weapons has been lost].

Hilts, Philip J. "Tally of Ex-Soviets' A-Arms Stirs Worry." The New York Times, 16 March 1992. [Possible missing nuclear weapons in Kazakhstan].

Auster, Bruce B. "No Assembly Required." U.S. News and World Report, 16 March 1992, 50.

"A Nice Red Afterglow." Economist, 14 March 1992, 45. [Future of nuclear weapons control in the former Soviet Union].

Trevelyan, Mark. "Sharp Decline in Nuclear Arms Safety in Former Soviet Union." North American News Report, 12 March 1992, file 611 Dialog Information Services, Inc., 0937119.

Mervis, Jeffrey. "A Way to Wean Weapons Makers." Nature 355 (February 1992): 756. [U.S., Germany and Russia plan an international center to aid civilian research by Russian nuclear weapons scientists and engineers].

Bartholomew, R. "U.S. Effort to Halt Weapons Proliferation in the Former Soviet Union." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 10 February 1992, 89-93.

Paine, C. and T. B. Cochran. "So Little Time, So Many Weapons, So Much to Do." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 48 (January/February 1992): 12-16. [Dismantling warheads in the disintegrating Soviet Union].

Gilmartin, P. A. "U.S. Officials Assess Status of Former Soviet Weapons Program." Aviation Week and Space Technology, 20 January 1992, 27.

Post, Tom. "Selling Nuclear Missiles and Minds." Newsweek, 13 January 1992, 29.

Hiatt, Fred. "Russian Nuclear Scientists Seek Business, Food." The Washington Post, 18 January 1992.

"Keep Watch Over Former Soviet Arms." Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6 January 1992, 9.

Dworetzky, T. "Beating Swords into Dow Shares." Omni (N.Y.) 14 (December 1991): 20. [Buying Soviet nuclear weapons and destroying them].

Corelli, Rae. "Nuclear Nightmare: The Massive Soviet Arsenal May Not Be Secure." Maclean's, 23 December 1991, 25-26.

Watson, Russell. "Nukes on the Loose." Newsweek, 16 December 1991, 32.

Lellouche, Pierre. "Nucleaire sovietique: L'inquietant scenario." Point, 14 December 1991, 21-22.

Beardsley, Timothy M. "Red Alert: Who's Controlling the World's Largest Nuclear Arsenal?" Scientific American 265 (November 1991): 17-18.

Bentura, Stephane. "Chechen Leader Threatens Moscow with Nuclear Terrorism." Agence France Presse English Wire Service, 8 November 1991, file 614 Dialog Information Services, Inc., 01034511.

"Where the Weapons Are." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 47 (November 1991): 48-49.

"U.S. Nuclear Weapons Safety and Control Features." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 47 (October 1991): 48-49.

Talbott, Strobe. "Heading Off a Chain Reaction." Time, 21 October 1991, 70. [Nuclear weapons in the Russian republics].

Markov, Vladimir. "Who's in Charge of Nuclear Weapons?" Soviet Life (October 1991): 20.

Bayev, Pavel. "Russia's Nuclear Burden." New Times, no. 40 (October 1991): 14-15.

Karp, R. Koen. "The Nuclear Button for Two." New Times, no. 37 (September 1991): 18-20.

Castro, Janice. "Nukes for Sale, No Money Down." Time, 30 September 1991, 19.

Waller, Douglas. "A Nuclear Nightmare? How the Soviet Arsenal Might Slip Out of Control." Newsweek, 9 September 1991, 35.

Auster, Bruce B. "The Real Nuclear Problem." U.S. News and World Report, 9 September 1991, 26. [Soviet nuclear arms in breakaway republics].

Lemonick, M. D. "What about the Nukes?" Time, 9 September 1991, 45-46.

Hewko, John and Mitchell Reiss. "Soviets' Nuclear Question." Christian Science Monitor, 12 June 1991.


Lagarde, Dominique. "The Highest Bidder Gets the Weapons (A New Nuclear Age?)." World Press Review 38 (December 1991): 11.

Norris, Robert S. and William M. Arkin. "U.S. Nuclear Weapons Safety and Control Features." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 47 (October 1991): 48.

Broad, William J. "U.S. Experts Split Over the Security of Europe A-Arms; Terrorism Threat Cited; Departments of Defense and Energy Debate Safeguards on Theft and Sabotage." The New York Times, 11 March 1991.

Nuclear Emergency/Terrorism Response Plan. By Jim Watkins, project leader. Sacramento, CA: Governor's Office of Emergency Services, 1991.

United States. General Accounting Office. "Nuclear Security: Safeguards and Security Weaknesses at DOE's Weapons Facilities. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives." Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, 1991.

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Crime: The Threat to Nuclear Facilities and Programs. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1990.

Leventhal, Paul L. and Milton M. Hoenig. "Nuclear Terrorism--Reactor Sabotage and Weapons Proliferation Risks." Contemporary Policy Issues 8, no. 3 (1990): 106-121.

Higgins, C. E. "Energize! Nuclear Security." Security Management 32 (May 1988): 71-74.

United States. House of Representatives. Committee on Foreign Affairs. "International Physical Security Standards for Nuclear Materials Outside the United States: Report to Congress Pursuant to Section 604 of the Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Anti-Terrorism Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-399)." Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, USGPO, 1988.

United States. House of Representatives. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. "Threat of Sabotage and Terrorism to Commercial Nuclear Powerplants: Oversight Hearing Before the Subcommittee on General Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held in Washington, D.C., March 9, 1988." Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, USGPO, 1988. [Supdoc. no. Y4.In8/14:100-43].

Hoffman, Bruce. The Potential Threat to Commercial Nuclear Facilities. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1988.

Hoenig, Milton M. and Paul L. Leventhal. Nuclear Installations and Potential Risks: The Hidden Danger: Risks of Nuclear Terrorism. Washington, DC: The Nuclear Control Institute, 1987.

________. "The Hidden Danger: Risks of Nuclear Terrorism." Terrorism 10, no. 1 (1987): 1-22.

Totten, Michael. "Nuclear Terrorism; The Possibilities, Probable Consequences, and Preventive Strategies." Social Science Record 24 (Fall 1986): 14-16.

Hirsch, Daniel, et al. "Protecting Reactors from Terrorists." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 42 (March 1986): 22-25.

"Protecting Nuclear Materials in the Terrorist Age: The International Challenge." Brooklyn Journal of International Law 12 (March 1986): 305-338.

Kindillen, Robert E. "Nuclear Plants Confront Modern Terrorism." Security Management 29 (October 1985): 119-120.

Ramberg, B. Nuclear Power Plants as Weapons for the Enemy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

Cadwell, J. J. Nuclear Facility Threat Analysis and Tactical Response Procedures. Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas, 1983.

Mazur, Allan. "Bomb Threats Against American Nuclear Energy Facilities." Journal of Political and Military Sociology 11, no. 1 (1983): 109-121.

Kirkwood, Craig W. and Stephen M. Pollock. "Multiple Attribute Scenarios, Bounded Probabilities, and Threats of Nuclear Theft." Futures 14 (December 1982): 545-553.

Argyle, H. J. "Nuclear Security in a Sagebrush Environment." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 51 (September 1982): 1-6.

Mullen, S. Generic Adversary Characteristics and the Potential Threat to Licensed Nuclear Activities from Insiders. Washington, DC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1981. [NTIS number ADP0033746XSP].

Bradley, William A., et al. "Keeping Reactors Safe from Sabotage." Los Alamos Science (Summer-Fall 1981): 120-131.

Mullen, Robert K. "Subnational Threats to Civil Nuclear Facilities and Safeguards Institutions." In Responding to the Terrorist Threat: Security and Crisis Management, ed. Richard Shultz, Jr. and Stephen Sloan, 134-173. New York: Pergamon Press, 1980.

Ramberg, Bennett. Destruction of Nuclear Energy Facilities in War: The Problem and the Implications. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1980.

Alexander, Yonah." Terrorism and the Nuclear Energy Industry: A Prelude to the Future?" Terrorism Report 11 (1980): 3-5.

Keepin, G. Robert. "Nuclear Safeguards--A Global Issue." Los Alamos Science 1 (Summer 1980); 68-87.

Sieghart, Paul. "Guarding Nuclear Materials and Civil Liberties." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 36 (May 1980): 32.


Shemella, P. Sheltering the Genie: The LIC Threat to Nuclear Systems. Final Report. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, 1990.

Leventhal, Paul. "The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection." Social Education 54 (March 1990): 146-150.

Almond, Peter. "Nunn, Military Discuss Nuclear Terrorism Threat." Washington Times, 30 March 1990.

Ezeldin, Ahmed G. "Terrorism in the 1990's: New Strategies and the Nuclear Threat." International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 13 (Fall 1989): 7-16.

Mackenzie, Alastair. "Nuclear Threat Is Real: Terrorism." Pacific Defense Reporter 15 (March 1989): 50-52.

Hoffman, Bruce. Recent Trends and Future Prospects of Terrorism in the United States. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1988.

DeLeon, Peter and Bruce Hoffman, with Konrad Kellen and Brian Jenkins. The Threat of Nuclear Terrorism: A Reexamination. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1988.

Leventhal, Paul and Brahma Chellaney. "Nuclear Terrorism: Threat, Perception and Response in South Asia." Terrorism 11, no. 6 (1988): 447-470.

Beres, Louis Rene. Terrorism and Global Security: The Nuclear Threat. 2nd ed. rev. and updated. Boulder and London: Westview Press, 1987.

Neuman, G. G. "Terrorism and the Nuclear Bomb: An Ominous Threat of a New Social Order." In Origins of Human Aggression, ed. G. G. Neuman, 164-173. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1987.

Post, Jerold M. "Prospects for Nuclear Terrorism: Psychological Motivations and Constraints." Conflict Quarterly 7 (Summer 1987): 47-58.

Marshall, Eliot. "If Terrorists Go Nuclear (Nuclear Control Institute Study)." Science, 11 June 1986, 148-149.

Kende, Istvan. "Terrorism, Wars, Nuclear Holocaust." International Social Science Journal 38, no. 4 (1986): 529-538.

Hoffman, Bruce. Terrorism in the United States and the Potential Threat to Nuclear Facilities. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1986.

Nuclear Control Institute and the State University of New York Institute on Studies in International Terrorism. Nuclear Terrorism: Defining the Threat. Edited by Paul Leventhal and Yonah Alexander. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1986.

Judd, Bruce R. and A. Al-Ayat Rokaya. Inside Protection--A Report Card. Livermore, CA: Livermore National laboratory, 1986.

Jones, Arthur. "Nuclear Terrorism 'More Likely' Than War; Experts Say U.S. Likely Target." National Catholic Reporter, 7 (February 1986): 5.

David, B. "The Capability and Motivation of Terrorist Organizations to Use Mass Destruction Weapons." In On Terrorism and Combating Terrorism, ed. A. Merari, 145-156. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1985.

Jenkins, Brian. The Likelihood of Nuclear Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1985.

Carlson, J. A. "It Can Happen in Centerville, U.S.A.: Nuclear Extortion." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 54 (September 1985): 1-4.

Berard, Stanley P. "Nuclear Terrorism: More Myth Than Reality." Air University Review 36 (July-August 1985): 30-36.

Jenkins, Brian M. "Will Terrorists Go Nuclear?" Orbis 29, no. 3 (1985): 507-516.

Starr, Barbara. "A Threat of Nuclear Terrorism at Home." Business Week, 8 October 1984, 62.

Bass, Gail V. A Review of Recent Trends in International Terrorism and Nuclear Incidents Abroad. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1983.

Bass, Gail V. and Brian M. Jenkins. The Appeal of Nuclear Crimes to the Spectrum of Potential Adversaries. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1982.

Frank, J. "On Emotional Responses to Nuclear Issues and Terrorism." In Psychological Aspects of Nuclear Developments. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1982.

Friedlander, Robert A. "Ultimate Nightmare: What If Terrorists Go Nuclear?" Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 12 (Fall 1982): 1-11.

Schelling, Thomas. "Thinking about Nuclear Terrorism." International Security 6 (Spring 1982): 61-77.

Schelling, Thomas. The Terrorist Use of Nuclear Weapons. Los Angeles: Center for International and Strategic Affairs, 1981.

Bass, Gail V. et al. "Motivations and Possible Actions of Potential Criminal Adversaries of U.S. Nuclear Programs." Nuclear Safety 22 (January-February 1981): 21-25.

Salmore, Barbara and Douglas Simon. "Nuclear Terrorism in Perspective." Society 17 (July/August 1980): 21-24.

Jenkins, Brian M. "Nuclear Terrorism and Its Consequences." Society 17, no. 5 (1980): 5-15.


"Iraq's Bomb, Chip by Chip" The New York Times, 24 April 1992. [Table of American corporations that provided materials and equipment that would have enabled Iraq to construct nuclear weapons, from U.S. Department of Commerce export licensing records].

Sciolino, Elaine. "U.S. Agencies Split Over North Korea; State Department and C.I.A. Differ on Nuclear Predictions (Is the Country a National Security Threat?)." The New York Times, 10 March 1992.

"Nuclear Terrorism Threat." USA Today, 16 January 1992, file 703 Dialog Information Services, Inc. 06502414 [Discusses Chinese nuclear arsenal sales to Third World countries].

Ruthen, Russell. "Iraq's Nuclear Threat: Is the U.S. Underestimating Hussein's Nuclear Capability?" Scientific American 264 (February 1991): 14.

Jacquard, Roland. Le marche noir de la bombe A. Paris: Vertiges du nord; Issy-les-Moulineaux: Carrere, 1986.