The views expressed in FMSO publications and reports are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policy or position of the Department of the Army,
Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

Research Sources on Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement: 1987-1992

Dr. Timothy L. Sanz
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS.

July 1996
Originally published in Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement,
Vol. 2, No. 1 (Summer 1993): pp. 173-193.

U.N. peacekeeping efforts in Bosnia-Hercegovina have again brought the subject of peacekeeping to the forefront and has raised questions as to how peacekeeping operations will be financed and what the composition and role of such forces should be. Should Japan and Germany play a role in such operations, and will NATO forces be employed to keep the peace in Europe outside its traditional boundaries? Problems with efforts in Bosnia-Hercegovina and Cambodia also point out possible limitations to peacekeeping operations. The use of Russian peacekeeping troops in areas of the former Soviet Union is also problematic.

This work cites materials primarily from 1987 to November 1992. For earlier citations see Peter Jones, Peacekeeping: An Annotated Bibliography, Kingston, Ont.: Ronald P. Frye and Company, c1989 which emphasizes, but is not limited to, Canada's peacekeeping experience. It contains citations primarily from the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s (with a few citations from 1985, 1986, and one from 1987), an essay on Canada's peacekeeping criteria, and a good synopsis of world-wide peacekeeping operations from 1945 to the 1980s.

An independent bi-monthly journal, Peacekeeping and International Relations (Incorporating International Perspectives), provides facts and opinions on all aspects of peacekeeping and is intended for peacekeeping troops, diplomats, politicians, and U.N. officials. It is published by the Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies at 76 St. Clair Ave. W., Ste. 502, Toronto, Ontario, Canada for $25 for 6 issues.

Part I below contains citations dealing primarily with specific geographical areas--Africa, Asia, Central and South America, C.I.S., Europe, and the Middle East.

Part II is subdivided into various subjects--Analyses of peacekeeping operations (limitations, roles, problems, and assessments), planning and management of forces, and financial, military and political aspects of peacekeeping. Under each section the citations are arranged in reverse chronology.

A separate section III on peace enforcement, or peacemaking, as it is also termed, concludes this article.



Diehl, Paul F. and Sonia R. Jurado. United Nations Election Supervision in South Africa?: Lessons from the Namibian Peacekeeping Experience. Urbana, IL: Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1992.

Rikhye, Indar Jit. Military Advisor to the Secretary General: UN Peacekeeping and the Congo Crisis. London; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

United States Naval Institute. 'Operation Provide Relief--Somalia.' PERISCOPE Special Report, United Communications Group, 27 November 1992.

Perlez, Jane. 'Mozambique Gets U.N. Observer Unit; A Small Group Arrives in the Capital to Oversee Accord.' New York Times, 16 October 1992, p. A8.

Bartholet, Jeffery. 'The Road to Hell; Can the International Community Save Somalia, or Any Country, from Itself?' Newsweek, 21 September 1992, pp. 52-55.

'2,400 U.S. Marines Dispatched to Somalia (to Support United Nations Troops Guarding Food and Aid).' New York Times, 17 September 1992, p. A5.

'West Africa's Lonely Peace-Keepers.' Washington Post, 11 August 1992, p. A16. [Editorial concerning the civil war in Liberia]

Kraft, Scott. 'Keeping the Peace in S. Africa.' Los Angeles Times, 7 August 1992, p. A5.

Moffett, George D. III. 'White House Hints Change in Stance Against Putting UN Peacekeepers in Somalia.' Christian Science Monitor, 6 August 1992, p. 1.

Richburg, Keith B. 'Africans Debate Permanent Peace-keeping Force.' Washington Post, 10 July 1992, p. A22. [Organization of African Unity]

Battersby, John and Ross Dunn. 'UN Set to Join Efforts to Resolve S. Africa Crisis; Pretoria Likely to Allow a Monitoring Body to Legitimize Violence Probe.' Christian Science Monitor, 3 July 1992, p. 7.

Hultman, Tami. 'UN Mission at Risk in Western Sahara.' Africa News, 11 May 1992, p. 1.

Lewis, Paul. 'Reined in by U.S., U.N. Limits Missions to Somalia.' New York Times, 26 April 1992, p. A15.

Bartholet, Jeffrey. 'This is the New World Order? The Rejuvenated U.N. Tries to Salvage Somalia.' Newsweek, 6 April 1992, p. 36.

Rikhye, Indar Jit. Military Advisor to the Secretary-General: United Nations Peacekeeping and the Congo Crisis. New York: St. Martin's, 1991.

Sesay, Amadu. 'The Limits of Peace-keeping by a Regional Organization: The OAU Peace-Keeping Force in Chad.' Conflict Quarterly 11 (Winter 1991): pp. 7-26.

Dale, Richard. 'The UN and African Decolonization: UNTAG in Namibia.' TransAfrica Forum: A Quarterly Journal of Opinion on Africa and the Caribbean 8 (Fall 1991): pp. 31-48. [Role of U.N. Transitional Assistance Group in peacekeeping]

Schutz, Barry M. 'Peacekeeping in Africa: Breakthrough or Politics as Usual?' TransAfrica Forum: A Quarterly Journal of Opinion on Africa and the Caribbean 8 (Fall 1991): pp. 49-60. [History of U.N. efforts since the Congo crisis of 1960 and current prospects]

Houk, Marian. 'UN Gears Up for Peace Operation in Western Sahara.' Christian Science Monitor, 6 May 1991, p. 6.

Fursdon, Edward. 'UN Successes in 1990.' Army Quarterly and Defence Journal 121, No. 2 (1991): pp. 206-13. [Peacekeeping efforts in Namibia and Cyprus]

'Two Nations May Leave Liberian Peace Force.' New York Times, 14 September 1990, p. A8(N), A6(L). [Nigeria and Ghana]

Noble, Kenneth B. 'African Force Is Protecting Doe's Tribe.' New York Times, 12 September 1990, p. A3. [West African peacekeeping force in Liberia]

Dada, C. A. 'Need for Organization of African Unity to Develop a Peacekeeping Capability.' Maxwell Air force Base, AL: Air War College, 1990.

Beauregard, J.P.R.E. 'UN Operations in the Congo 1960-1964.' Canadian Defence Quarterly 19 (Summer 1989): pp. 27-8.

Sesay, Amadu. 'The OAU Peace-keeping Force in Chad: Some Lessons for Future Operations.' Current Research on Peace and Violence 12, No. 4 (1989): pp. 191-200.


Shenon, Philip. 'Japanese Sun Again Rises Overseas.' New York Times, 27 September 1992, p. A6(N), A10(L). [Peacekeeping force in Cambodia].

Grier, Peter. 'UN Peacekeeping Effort Breaking Down in Cambodia; Khmer Rouge Will Not Hand Over Its Guns to United Nations Troops.' Christian Science Monitor, 16 July 1992, p. 1.

Branigin, William. 'U.N. Peace-keeping Efforts Criticized in Cambodia, Bosnia; Khmer Rouge Charges Tilt Toward Phnom Penh.' Washington Post, 19 June 1992, p. A30.

'Japan as a Peacekeeper.' Washington Post, 12 June 1992, p. A22. [Japanese Diet debates authorizing troops for U.N. peacekeeping operations]

'A Share in Keeping the Peace; With New U.N. Role, Japan Will Shift to Higher Level of Global Responsibility.' Los Angeles Times, 10 June 1992, p. B6. [Editorial--Japan's participation is not a military threat]

'Afghan Turning Point.' Christian Science Monitor, 24 April 1992, p. 20. [Editorial on U.N. peacemaking efforts in Afghanistan]

Ali, S. 'Good Omens: Key Players Favour the UN Peace Initiative.' Far East Economic Review, 16 April 1992, p. 13. [Afghanistan]

Rosett, Claudia. 'The U.N.'s Iffy Plan for Cambodia.' Wall Street Journal, 10 April 1992, p. A14(W), A16(W). [United Nations peacekeeping forces in Cambodia to prepare the way for elections)]

Leifer, Michael. 'Power-sharing and Peacemaking in Cambodia?' SAIS Review 12 (Winter/Spring 1992): pp. 139-53.

'Political Solution to Afghan Problem Called for by Assembly.' UN Chronicle 29 (March 1992): p. 71.

Gargan, Edward A. 'A Few Grains of Hope Flavor Political Stew in Afghanistan.' New York Times, 13 March 1992, p. A1. [U.N. efforts to restore peace]

'UNclear: Cambodia.' Economist, 29 February 1992, pp. 37-8. [U.N. advanced mission in Cambodia].

Rowe, Trevor. 'U.N. Security Council Approves Peace-keepers for Cambodia; Mission, Unprecedented in Size and Cost, to Start in March.' Washington Post, 29 February 1992, p. A18.

'Paris Conference on Cambodia: Agreements Elaborating the Framework for a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict (Done at Paris, October 23, 1991).' International Legal Materials 31 (January 1992): pp. 174-204.

'Comprehensive Political Settlement for Cambodia Signed in Paris.' Foreign Policy Bulletin: The Documentary Record of United States Foreign Policy 2 (November-December 1991): pp. 30-4. [Text of cease-fire agreement from 23 Oct. 1991 providing for U.N. peacekeeping force]

Thomas, Trisha. 'Into the Unknown: Can the United Nations Bring Peace to Cambodia?' Journal of International Affairs 44 (Winter 1991): pp. 495-515.

Mackinlay, John. 'UN Monitors in Cambodia Have a Big Task Ahead.' Christian Science Monitor, 28 October 1991, p. 19.

________. 'Role for the Peacekeeper in Cambodia.' RUSI Journal for Defence Studies 135 (Autumn 1990): pp. 26-30.

Klintworth, Gary and Ross Babbage. Peacekeeping in Cambodia: An Australian Role? Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1989.

Smith, G. D. 'Truce Supervision in Indochina 1954-1973.' Canadian Defence Quarterly 19 (Summer 1989): pp. 34-6.


Crossette, Barbara. 'U.S. Begins Talks on Outside Force to Stabilize Haiti.' New York Times, 6 June 1992, p. A1. [Possible international peace force to restore President Aristide].

'El Salvador: Peace-Creeping.' Economist, 30 May 1992, pp. 46-7. 'Agreement Reached to End 12-Year Conflict in El Salvador.' UN Chronicle 29 (March 1992): p. 80.

Crossette, Barbara. 'Plan for Global Peacekeepers in Haiti is Weighed.' New York Times, 14 February 1992, p. A6. [U.S. and Latin America discuss a peacekeeping force by the Organization of American States]

Scott, David Clark. 'UN Takes on Task of Ensuring Salvadoran Peace: Expanded Role Includes Oversight of Police While New Force Is Trained.' Christian Science Monitor, 14 February 1992, p. 1.

'ONUCA Mandate Extended.' UN Chronicle (September 1991): p. 23. [U.N. Observer Group in Central America]

'UN Human Rights Observers for El Salvador: Ultimate Goal to Monitor Cease-Fire and Other Peace Accords.' UN Chronicle (September 1991): pp. 22-3.

'Assembly Reasserts UN Peace Role in Central America.' UN Chronicle 28 (September 1991): pp. 59-61.

Orrego Vicuna, Francisco. 'Nuevas modalidades para el restablecimiento de la paz y seguridad en el derecho internacional: El grupo de Observadores de las Naciones Unidas en Centroamerica.' Estudios Internacionales 23 (January/March 1991): pp. 3-18. [U.N. Observer Group in Central America]

'Central American Plan Mobilizes Over $400 Million for Peace, Development.' UN Chronicle 27 (December 1990): pp. 33-5.

'U.N. Asked to Expand Its Force in Nicaragua.' New York Times, 17 March 1990, p. 3.

Ring, Wilson. 'Honduras Calls for U.N. Unit.' Washington Post, 25 November 1989, p. A20. [U.N. peacekeeping forces]

Morello, Ted. 'Path Cleared for UN Peacekeepers in Central America.' Christian Science Monitor, 15 August 1989, p. 3.

Uhlig, Mark A. 'Latin Nations Ask for U.N. Presence; 5 Central American Officials Say Unarmed Unit Would Monitor Peace Accord.' New York Times, 1 April 1989, p. 4.

Gordon, Dennis R. 'The Paralysis of Multilateral Peacekeeping: International Organizations and the Falkland/Malvinas War.' Peace and Change: A Journal of Peace Research 12, Nos. 1-2 (1987): pp. 51-63. [Role of the U.N. and Organization of American States].


Crow, Suzanne. 'The Theory and Practice of Peacekeeping in the Former USSR.' RFE/RL Research Report, 18 September 1992, pp. 31-6.

________. 'Russian Peacekeeping: Defense, Diplomacy, or Imperialism?' RFE/RL Research Report, 18 September 1992, pp. 37-40.

Sneider, Daniel. 'Russia's "Peacekeeping" Raises Issue of Neutrality.' Christian Science Monitor, 14 September 1992, p. 1. [In Georgia and Moldova].

Burke, Justin. 'Russia Bids to Cap Ethnic Crises; Russian Proposal to Send Peacekeepers to Central Asia Sets Bad Precedent, Critics Say.' Christian Science Monitor, 3 September 1992, p. 5.

'Peacekeepers Occupy Former Soviet Region.' New York Times, 15 July 1992, p. A4. [Russian-Georgian peacekeeping forces in U.N. blue begin operations in Ossetia in Georgia]

'Moldova's Parliament Seeks Peacekeepers.' New York Times, 8 July 1992, p. A4(N), A8(L). [Seeks C.I.S. peacekeeping force for the Trans-Dniester region].

Schmemann, Serge. 'Yeltsin Plans Peacekeepers to End Fighting in Moldova.' New York Times, 7 July 1992, p. A6(N), A8(L).

Hiatt, Fred. 'CIS Leaders Plan to Form Peace Force.' Washington Post, 7 July 1992, p. A13. [Plans to send peacekeeping forces to Moldova and Azerbaijan]

Bonner, Elena. 'Red Army Redux.' Wall Street Journal, 7 April 1992, p. A16. [Decision to form a C.I.S. peacekeeping force a serious error by giving army the chance to become an independent and dangerous political force]. Shorr, David. 'Europe's Peace Machinery.' Christian Science Monitor, 31 March 1992, p. 18. [Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe attempts conflict resolution in Azerbaijan]

Botgatko, Sergey. '"Vystrel"--v pol'zu mira.' ["Vystrel" in support of peace] Sovetskiy voin [Soviet Soldier], No. 8 (April 1989): pp. 80-1. [Soviet Army's Vystrel higher officers' courses prepare officers for duty with U.N. peace-keeping forces]


Mouat, Lucia. 'UN Takes Heat on Peacekeeping, Relief Effort in Bosnian Crisis.' Christian Science Monitor, 3 November 1992, p. 1.

Lewis, Paul. 'U.N. Will Add Troops to Bosnia Force.' New York Times, 11 September 1992, p. A1. 'Bosnia: Do Something.' Christian Science Monitor, 12 August 1992, p. 20. [Editorial--call for U.N. military intervention in the Yugoslav conflict]

Lewis, Paul. 'U.S. and Allies Split over Role of U.N. Forces.' New York Times, 9 August 1992, p. 10(N), 12(L). [Bosnia-Hercegovina]

Vogel, Steve. 'West European Force to Be Formed.' Washington Post, 20 June 1992, p. A18. [International police force]

Whitney, Craig R. 'NATO Sees a Role with Peacekeepers for Eastern Europe.' New York Times, 5 June 1992, p. A1.

Girardon, Jacques. 'Casques bleus: Mission impossible.' L'Express, 22 May 1992, pp. 23-5. [U.N. peacekeeping forces in Yugoslavia].

'On the Firing Line.' Maclean's, 4 May 1992, pp. 24-6. [Canadian peacekeeping forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina].

Lewis, Paul. 'U.N. Cautions Turks and Greeks Cyprus Peace Force May Collapse.' New York Times, 12 April 1992, p. 13.

Goodby, James E. 'Peacekeeping in the New Europe.' Washington Quarterly 15 (Spring 1992): pp. 153-71. [Focuses on mediators in the Yugoslav conflict].

Burns, John F. 'U.N. Peacekeeping Force Moves into Yugoslavia.' New York Times, 15 March 1992, p. 7.

'U. N. Security Council Votes Croatia Peace Force.' Facts on File, 5 March 1992, p. 154.

'UN Peace-keeping Operation for Yugoslavia in Question: Cease-fire Must First Be Respected.' UN Chronicle 29 (March 1992): pp. 72-3.

Lewis, Paul. 'U.N. Votes to Send Force to Yugoslavia.' New York Times, 24 February 1992, p. 3.

'Boldly to the Balkans.' Economist, 22 February 1992, pp. 13-14.

Lewis, Paul. 'Council Supports U.N. Peacekeepers for Yugoslav War; 13,000 Troops Planned; Final Approval Expected Soon--Force Would Be in Place for Minimum of a Year.' New York Times, 14 February 1992, p. A1.

Holman, Richard L. 'EC to Create Europol Agency.' Wall Street Journal, 4 December 1991, p. A10(W), A12(E). [European Community plans police intelligence group]

Tuohy, William. 'Peace Force for Yugoslavia Rejected by EC.' Los Angeles Times, 20 September 1991, p. A9.

Cohen, Warren. 'Keeping the Peace.' U.S. News and World Report, 15 July 1991, p. 13. [Europe's plans for a peacekeeping force]


'UNIFIL Mandate Extended.' UN Chronicle (December 1991): p. 38. [U.N. Security Council authorizes operation of United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon until 31 January 1992]

McDermott, Anthony, ed. The Multinational Force in Beirut, 1982-1984. Miami, FL: Florida International University Press, c1991.

'Security Council Implements Resolution 687, Monitors Iraqi Disarmament, Creates Compensation Fund.' UN Chronicle (September 1991): pp. 9-17.

Allan, James H. 'Peacekeeping in the Persian Gulf.' Military Review 71 (August 1991): pp. 56-63.

'U.N. Readies Move, With Refugees Fearful.' New York Times, 24 April 1991, p. A7. [U.N. troops in the demilitarized zone between Iraq and Kuwait].

Meisler, Stanley. 'Blue Helmets Heading for Gulf Border Duty.' Los Angeles Times, 12 April 1991, p. A5. [U.N. peacekeeping forces to the Persian Gulf].

Allen, Glen. 'Peacekeepers at War: Canada Forges a Postwar Role.' Maclean's, 4 March 1991, p. 41. [Persian Gulf War].

Mackinlay, John. The Peacekeepers: An Assessment of Peacekeeping Operations at the Arab-Israel Interface. London; Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989. [Lebanon, Egypt, and Sinai]

Skogmo, Bjorn. UNIFIL: International Peacekeeping in Lebanon, 1978-1988. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers, 1989.

'Where Peacekeeping Works.' Economist, 8 April 1989, p. 48. [United Nations Iran-Iraq Observers Group (UNIIMOG) monitoring the cease-fire along the border].

Thakur, Ramesh. International Peacekeeping in Lebanon: United Nations Authority and Multinational Force. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1987.

Pogany, Istvan S. The Arab League and Peacekeeping in Lebanon. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.

Mackinlay, John. 'MNF2 in Beirut: Some Military Lessons for Peacekeepers.' Conflict Quarterly 6 (Fall 1986): pp. 15-26.

Houghton, Robert B. and Frank G. Trinka. Multinational Peacekeeping in the Middle East. Washington, DC: Center for the Study of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Service Institute, U.S. Department of State, 1985.



Diehl, Paul F. and Chetan Kumar. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Some Win-Win Applications. Urbana, IL: Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1992.

Durch, William, ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

Liu, F. T. United Nations Peacekeeping and the Non-use of Force. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers, 1992.

Rikhye, Indar Jit. Strengthening UN Peacekeeping: New Challenges and Proposals. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1992.

Cruickshank, John. 'Canada as Peacekeeper; Its Public Has a Deep Commitment to Involvement in UN Operations.' Christian Science Monitor, 12 August 1992, p. 19.

Newsom, David D. 'Two Crises Reveal the Limits of Force.' Christian Science Monitor, 12 August 1992, p. 19. [U.N. member nations fear long-term commitment to military intervention]

Hillen, John F. III. 'Collective-Security Force Is a Cruel Illusion.' Los Angeles Times, 10 August 1992, p. B5. [U.N. peacekeeping forces]

Kirkpatrick, Jeane. 'The Only Way to Stop Aggression.' Washington Post, 3 August 1992, p. A19. [Through collective military action]

Hillen, John F. III. 'The Limitations of a UN "Army".' Christian Science Monitor, 23 July 1992, p. 18. [International police force under auspices of U.N. would fail]

Holt, Pat M. 'The Best Military Option: Stronger UN Peacekeeping.' Christian Science Monitor, 2 April 1992, p. 18.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Operations. The Future of U.N. Peacekeeping Operations. Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., Supt. of Documents, 25 March 1992.

Mouat, Lucia. 'UN Peacekeepers Face Tough, New Challenges.' Christian Science Monitor, 25 March 1992, p. 10.

Hughes, John. 'UN--A Real Force for Preserving Peace.' Christian Science Monitor, 12 March 1992, p. 19.

Inderfurth, Rick. 'The UN on a Roll; A New Willingness to Intervene in the Internal Affairs of Countries Could Greatly Expand the Organization's Mandate for Peacekeeping.' Christian Science Monitor, 3 December 1991, p. 18.

Frye, William R. 'The Overselling of the United Nations.' Christian Science Monitor, 8 October 1991, p. 19. [Ability to stop international conflict].

Russett, B. and J. S. Sutterlin. 'The U.N. in a New World Order.' Foreign Affairs 70 (Spring 1991): pp. 69-83.

United Nations. Department of Public Information. The Blue Helmets: A Review of United Nations Peace-keeping. 2nd ed. New York: The United Nations, 1990.

Weiss, Thomas G. 'The U.N.: Slow and Inefficient, But It Works.' Christian Science Monitor, 28 December 1990, p. 19.

James, Alan. 'International Peacekeeping: The Disputants View.' Political Studies 38 (June 1990): pp. 215-30.

Karns, Margaret P. and Karen A. Mingst. 'Peacekeeping Efforts: Some Fly, Some Flop.' Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 46 (May 1990): pp. 43-7.

Franz, Mark A. 'UN Peace: Euphoria vs. Reality.' World & I: A Chronicle of Our Changing Era 5 (April 1990): pp. 126-31.

Ryan, S. 'Ethnic Conflict and the United Nations.' Ethnic Racial Studies 13 (January 1990): pp. 25-49.

Williamson, Richard S. 'The United Nations as Peacekeeper.' World Outlook: A Journal of International Affairs (Winter 1989): pp. 26-47.

Shuger, Scott. 'What America Hasn't Learned from Its Greatest Peacekeeping Disaster.' Washington Monthly 21 (October 1989): pp. 40-4. [Marine Corps in Lebanon].

Skjelsback, Kjell. 'United Nations Peacekeeping and the Facilitation of Withdrawals.' Bulletin of Peace Proposals 20 (Summer 1989): pp. 253-64. [Discusses successes and contains a chronology of sixteen operations].

Morrison, Alex. 'The Renaissance of United Nations Peacekeeping: Some Observations from New York.' Canadian Defence Quarterly 19 (Summer 1989): pp. 13-18.

Vance, Cyrus and Barry Blechman. 'U.N. Peacekeepers Can Do More; Successes Show Ability to Tackle Other Hot Spots, Wider Roles.' Los Angeles Times, 21 June 1989, p. 7.

Diehl, F. 'Peacekeeping Operations and the Quest for Peace.' Political Science Quarterly 103 (Fall 1988): pp. 485-507. [Lessons learned from six peacekeeping operations].

'Wretched Are the Peacekeepers.' Economist, 13 August 1988, p. 34.


United States. General Accounting Office. United Nations: U.S. Participation in Peacekeeping Operations: Report to the Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office, 1992.

Goshko, John M. 'U.S., Allies Feud over U.N. Funds; Earmarking Dues for Peace-keeping Operations Draws Objections.' Washington Post, 15 November 1992, p. A29, Dialog Information Services, Inc. 2102626. 'Small Change for Peacekeeping.' New York Times, 23 September 1992, p. A20(N), A26(L). [Editorial--U.S. needs to support financially and offer uniformed volunteers to U.N. peacekeeping forces]

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. 'Debtors Must Pay Up to Keep Peace.' Los Angeles Times, 9 September 1992, p. B7. [U.S. owes $208.8 million for U.N. peacekeeping operations]

Tyler, Patrick E. 'U.N. Chief's Dispute with Council Boils over.' New York Times, 3 August 1992, p. A1. [Funding for peacekeeping forces]

Cano, Antonio. 'Blue Helmets in the Red.' World Press Review 39 (July 1992): p. 33. [In 1992 U.N. will spend $2.5 billion for peacekeeping compared to $500 million in 1991].

Mouat, Lucia. 'Broad Mission, Small Budget Strain UN Effort.' Christian Science Monitor, 27 July 1992, p. 3.

Rowe, Trevor. 'Cost of Peace Keeping Threatens Normal U.N. Operations.' Washington Post, 31 July 1992, p. A16.

'Too Much Stress at the U.N.' New York Times, 25 July 1992, p. 14(N), 20(L). [Lack of financing for U.N. peacekeeping forces (editorial)]

Zimmerman, Tim. 'The U.N. to the Rescue.' U.S. News & World Report, 18 May 1992, pp. 52-4. [U.S.'s debt to the U.N. is hurting the financing of peacekeeping operations].

'The Unsung New World Army.' New York Times, 11 May 1992, p. A14. [Editorial criticizing U.S. for delays in payments for U.N. peacekeeping costs]

Holbrooke, Richard. 'What We Risk If We Walk Away.' Newsweek, 13 April 1992, p. 38. [U.S. funding needed for U.N. peacekeeping forces in Cambodia].

Moffett, George D. III. 'UN Peacekeeping Is Costly "Bargain" to US.' Christian Science Monitor, 16 March 1992, p. 8. [Report from the Henry L. Stimson Center that U.N. peacekeeping forces are a cost-effective way to stop local conflicts]

Strauss, Valerie. 'Cambodia Force Deploys, But Who Will Pay Bills?' Washington Post, 14 March 1992, p. A15. [U.N. peacekeeping forces].

'The New World Army.' New York Times, 6 March 1992, p. 18A. [United Nations peacekeeping operations].

Gelb, Leslie H. 'Banana Republic, U.S.A.' New York Times, 6 March 1992, p. A19. [Secretary Baker meets with Congressional members about the cost of U.N. peacekeeping forces].

Lewis, Paul. 'As the U.N.'s Armies Grow, the Talk Is of Preventing War.' New York Times, 1 March 1992, sec. 4, p. E4. [Increased funding needs; $3 billion cost in the former Yugoslavia].

Sommer, Mark. 'Who Will Pay for Peace?' Christian Science Monitor, 19 February 1992, p. 18. [Suggests a 'peace tax' on arms trade to pay for U.N. peacekeeping operations].

Doherty, Carroll J. 'Regional Flash Points Demand Attention of Lawmakers.' Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 15 February 1992, pp. 357-60.

'Paying for the Peacekeepers.' Economist, 25 January 1992, pp. 17-18.

'Piece-rate for Peacekeepers.' Economist, 25 January 1992, p. 38. [U.N. peacekeeping forces]

Bone, James. 'The Price of Peacekeeping.' World Press Review (December 1989): p. 57.


Stjernfelt, Bertil. The Sinai Peace Front: UN Peacekeeping Operations in the Middle East, 1973-1980. London; New York: Hurst; St. Martin's Press, 1992.

James, Alan. Peacekeeping in International Politics. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.

Rikhye, Indar J. and Kjell Skjelsback, eds. The United Nations and Peacekeeping: Results, Limitations and Prospects; The Lessons of 40 Years of Experience. London: Macmillan, 1990; New York: St. Martin's, 1991.

Campbell, Kurt M. and Thomas G. Weiss. 'Superpowers and UN Peacekeeping.' Harvard International Review 12 (Winter 1990): pp. 22-6. [Evolution of U.N.'s handling of Third World conflicts].

Challinor, Joan R. and Robert L. Beisner, eds. Arms at Rest: Peacemaking and Peacekeeping in American History. New York: Greenwood Press, c1987. [Covers the period 1783-1865].

Gaensdorfer, Manfred. 'Die friedenserhaltende Operationen der Vereinten Nationen.' Oesterreichische Militaerische Zeitschrift (Jul./Aug. 1986): pp. 340-8. [Theory and aims of the articles of the U.N. Charter dealing with peace-keeping forces and a history of operations since 1948]


Weiss, Thomas G. and Jarat Chopra. United Nations Peacekeeping: An ACUNS Teaching Text. Hanover, NH: Academic Council on the United Nations System, 1992.

Wellwood, Christopher R. United Nations Peacekeeping: The Road to Success. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1992. [Uses three case studies (Cyprus, Lebanon, and the United Nations Emergency Force II) to determine the optimal climate for a successful peacekeeping operation].

Staley, Robert S. The Wave of the Future: The United Nations and Naval Peacekeeping. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1992.

Scheffer, David J. 'NATO's First Peacekeeping Mission.' Christian Science Monitor, 6 July 1992, p. 19. [NATO should consider Cyprus]

Melloan, George. 'Peace Enforcement? Choose Your Weapons.' Wall Street Journal, 29 June 1992, p. A13(W), 15(E). [New role of North Atlantic Treaty Organization in armed 'peace enforcement']

'Peacekeeping Role Expands NATO's Task.' Aviation Week and Space Technology, 8 June 1992, p. 71.

Drozdiak, William. 'NATO Widens Mandate on Forces.' Washington Post, 5 June 1992, p. A41. [Approves the use of troops and equipment for peacekeeping operations in Europe beyond the member states]

Talbott, Strobe. 'Peacekeeping Loves Company.' Time, 18 May 1992, p. 54. [Pentagon officials suggest U.S. military serve under U.N. flag rather than unilaterally in peacekeeping operations].

Argersinger, S. J. Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and the United States. Study Project. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Army War College, 1991. [Concludes that peacekeeping is not a suitable mission for U.S. military units but that peace enforcing is the more appropriate role].

Santiago, George. 'Operational Continuum: What Is Peace Versus War?' Military Intelligence 17 (July-September 1991): pp. 17-19.

Prins, Gwyn. 'The United Nations and Peace-keeping in the Post-cold-war World: The Case of Naval Power.' Bulletin of Peace Proposals 22 (June 1991): pp. 135-55. [Chapter VII provisions of the U.N. charter concerning naval operations].

Lofgren, David J. Peacekeeping and the Army: Where Are We? Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1990.

Norton, Augustus R. and Thomas G. Weiss. 'UN Peace Keepers: Soldiers with a Difference. New York: Foreign Policy Assn., 1990.

Baker, Brent. 'New Mission: Waging Peace.' Sea Power 33 (July 1990): p. 36+.

Segal, David R. et al. 'Light Infantry as Peacekeepers in the Sinai.' Armed Forces and Society 16 (Spring 1990): pp. 385-403. [Low-intensity conflict training lowered soldiers' estimates of the probability of high-intensity conflict].

Prater, Phil. 'Keeping the Peace in the Middle East.' Soldiers 45 (January 1990): pp. 26-32.

Ayers, Charles M. Peacekeeping: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center, 1989.

'Blue-helmet Blues: United Nations Forces Sometimes Have to Fight to Keep the Peace.' Economist, 8 april 1989, p. 18.

Barbero, M. D. Peacemaking: the Brother of Peacekeeping or a Combat Operation. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 7 Feb. 1989. [Concludes that the two operations are fundamentally different and that it would be dangerous to expect a tactical commander to transition from one operation to the other successfully].

Ayers, Charles M. 'Peacekeeping Operations.' Infantry 79 (January-February 1989): pp. 19-23.

Charters, David A. and Maurice Tugwell, eds. Armies in Low-intensity Conflict: A Comparative Analysis. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon, 1989.

Diehl, Paul F. 'Avoiding Another Beirut Disaster: Strategies for the Deployment of U.S. Troops in Peacekeeping Roles.' Conflict 8 (1988): pp. 261-70.

Mather, Walter E., Jr. 'Peace Is Not My Profession: Deterrence Is Not My Mission.' Armed Forces Journal International 125 (June 1988): p. 78.

Toner, James H. 'Peacekeeping by Wishful Thinking.' Parameters 17 (September 1987): pp. 68-76.

McVittie, M.R. 'With the Irish in UNIFIL.' British Army Review 86 (Aug. 1987): pp. 39-45. [Describes the formation of the U.N. International Force in Lebanon and the organization, tasks, and operations of the 60th Irish Battalion].

Dodd, Norman L. 'U.N.: Keeping the Peace.' Asian Defence Journal (April 1987): pp. 46-8.

Kutter, Wolf D. Operational Guidelines for US Peacekeeping Commanders: An Individual Study Project. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1986. [Command and Control systems].

Malone, Michael D. et al. 'From Presence to American Intervention.' Survival (September/October 1986): pp. 422-30. [Role of U.S. forces in Lebanon during 1982]

Heiberg, Marianne and Johan J. Holst. 'Peacekeeping in Lebanon: Comparing UNIFIL and MNF.' Survival (September/October 1986): pp. 399-422.

Mackinlay, John. 'MNF2 in Beirut: Some Military Lessons for Peacekeepers.' Conflict Quarterly (Fall 1986): pp. 15-26. [The second intervention by a multi-national peace-keeping force (MNF2) in Beirut in September 1982]

Castillon, Michel. 'Low-Intensity Conflict in the 1980s: The French Experience.' Military Review 66 (January 1986): pp. 68-77. [French participation in the Lebanon peace-keeping operation and in the defense of Chad against Libyan aggression]

Brinkley, P. L. Tactical Requirements for Peacekeeping Operations. Monograph. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, December 1985. [Examines training requirements, principles of command and control, and organization for a U.S. light infantry unit]. Harris, Jesse J. and David R. Segal. 'Observations From the Sinai: The Boredom Factor.' Armed Forces and Society 11 (Winter 1985): pp. 235-48. [U.S. contingent with the Sinai MFO]

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Davidson-Smith, G. 'UN Peacekeeping and the Role of Force--A View from Below.' RUSI Journal, 130, 3 September 1985, pp. 37-41.

La Torre, Jr., A.V. 'Peacekeeping as a Military Mission.' Marine Corps Gazette 68 (December 1984): pp. 20-6.

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Fox, Kevin H. 'U. N. Peacekeepers.' Los Angeles Times, 22 September 1992, p. H6. [Statistics].

'The New Blue Army.' New York Times, 20 September 1992, p. E16. [Editorial on U.N. peacekeeping operations]

Renner, Michael G. 'A Force for Peace.' World Watch 5 (July 1992): pp. 28-33. [Discusses the creation of a well-financed permanent peacekeeping force].

Lewis, Paul. 'U.N. Chief Asks for 1,000-troop Units.' New York Times, 20 June 1992, p. 5. [Boutros-Ghali wants peacekeeping troops for rapid deployment].

_____. 'U.N. Chief Asks for Armed Force to Serve as Permanent Deterrent.' New York Times, 19 June 1992, p. A1. [Boutros Ghali].

Rowe, Trevor. 'U.N. Seeks Permanent Armed Force.' Washington Post, 19 June1992, p. A29. [Boutros Ghali plan for all member countries to make troops available on a continual basis].

Kempster, Norman. ''Euro-Atlantic' Peacekeepers Proposed.' Los Angeles Times, 18 June 1992, p. A6. [Proposal for joint Russian-American force at the Washington Summit].

Kouchner, Bernard. 'Humanitarian Army Ready to March.' New Perspectives Quarterly (Spring 1992): p. 62. [U.N. forces for regions of conflict].

McMannus, Doyle. 'NATO Considers Wider Role as Europe's Peacekeeper.' Los Angeles Times, 11 March 1992, p. A4.

'Sixth Committee: Enhancing UN Role. Assembly Approves Fact-Finding Declaration, Handbook on Settling Disputes.' UN Chronicle 29 (March 1992): p. 90.

Lewis, Paul. 'France's U.N. Military Plan Is at Odds with U.S. Stance.' New York Times, 2 February 1992, p. 7.

'Brave Peacekeepers.' Economist, 11 January 1992, p. 12.[U.N. peacekeeping forces].

Silber, Laura. 'EC to Consider Military Intervention in Yugoslavia.' Washington Post, 17 September 1991, p. A21. [European Community plan to end the war].

Urquhart, Brian. 'The U.N.'s Crucial Choice.' Foreign Policy (Fall 1991): pp. 159-66.

Sommer, Mark. 'Who Should Keep the World's Peace?' Christian Science Monitor, 29 August 1991, p. 19. [U.N. should have a permanent peace-keeping force to preside over small global conflicts].

'United Nations: Renaissance on the East River.' Economist, 15 December 1990, pp. 43-4. [Assesses whether the U.N. is prepared to be an international peacekeeper].

'The World's 'Top Cop'.' World Press Review (November 1990): p. 26. [United States].

'Security Council Urges Support for UN Peacekeeping Operations.' UN Chronicle 27 (September 1990): p. 11.

Orn, Torsten. 'Soldiers of Peace.' World Monitor: The Christian Science Monitor Monthly (October 1989): pp. 20-3. [U.N. peacekeeping forces].

Manson, Paul D. 'Peacekeeping in Canadian Foreign and Defence Policy.' Canadian Defence Quarterly 19 (Summer 1989): pp. 7-12.

Diehl, Paul F. 'A Permanent UN Peacekeeping Force: An Evaluation.' Bulletin of Peace Proposals 20 (March 1989): pp. 27-36.


Rosenfeld, Stephen. 'Sovereignty and Suffering; Charting the New Humanitarianism.' Washington Post, 2 October 1992, p. A29. [U.N. intervention in civil wars].

McKillop, Peter. 'Japan's G-rated Adventure; Tokyo Sends Peacekeepers on Their First Mission.' Newsweek, 19 October 1992, p. 47. [To Cambodia].

Pura, Raphael. 'Japan's Role in Peacekeeping Effort in Cambodia Poses a Diplomatic Test.' The Wall Street Journal, 15 October 1992, p. A11.

Thranert, Oliver. 'Germans Battle Over Blue Helmets.' Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (October 1992): pp. 33-36. [Possible peacekeeping forces].

Lewis, Paul. 'Europeans Urge the U.N. to Act More Aggressively to Prevent War.' New York Times, 23 September 1992, p. A10(N), A15(L).

_____. 'U.N. Set to Debate Peacemaking Role; Far-Reaching Proposals for a Collective Security Setup May Renew Divisions.' New York Times, 6 September 1992, p. 4(N), 7(L).

Newsom, David D. 'The US--A Reluctant Peacekeeper in Troubled Regions.' Christian Science Monitor, 22 July 1992, p. 19.

'UNO--Mission der Deutschen: Einsatz ohne Grenzen?' Der Spiegel, 20 Jul. 1992, pp. 22-35. [Possible participation of German troops in U.N. peacekeeping operations].

Lewis, Paul. 'The Right to Intervene for a Humanitarian Cause.' New York Times, 12 July 1992, p. E22. [Question of sovereignty and the use of peacekeeping forces]

'The New World Cops.' New York Times, 28 June 1992, p. E16. [Editorial on U.N. peacekeeping forces]

Sterngold, James. 'Japan Acts to Let Army Join U.N. Peace Missions.' New York Times, 10 June 1992, p. A7.

Greenberger, Robert S. 'Bush Advocates Remodeled U.N. But Is Wary of Ideas on the Table.' Wall Street Journal, 10 February 1992, p. A12(W), A10(E).

Kaufman, Gerald. 'Power Without Purpose.' New Statesman and Society, 27 September 1991, pp. 16-17.

Russett, Bruce and James Sutterlin. 'The U.N. in a New World Order.' Foreign Affairs 70 (Spring 1991): pp. 69-84.

Weiss, Thomas G. and Meryl A. Kessler. 'Resurrecting Peacekeeping: The Superpowers and Conflict Management.' Third World Quarterly 12, Nos. 3/4 (1990-91): pp. 124-46.

Campbell, Kurt M. and Thomas G. Weiss. 'Superpowers and UN Peacekeeping.' Harvard International Review 12 (Winter 1990): pp. 22-6.

'Security Council Urges Support for UN Peacekeeping Operations.' UN Chronicle (September 1990): p. 11.

'UN Peace-keeping Activities Need Broad Support.' UN Chronicle 27 (March 1990): p. 74.

Bardehle, Peter. 'Bundesdeutsche Blauhelme? Chancen und Grenzen des UN-Peacekeeping.' Aussenpolitik: Zeitschrift fuer internationale Fragen 40, no. 4 (1989): pp. 382-94. [Possible West German participation in U.N. peacekeeping].

Cantor, Aviva. 'Peace Fence for Mideast.' Christian Science Monitor, 19 April 1989, p. 19. [U.N. needed in Israeli-occupied territories]

Norton, Augustus Richard and Thomas G. Weiss. 'Burden Sharing; Turning Again to UN Peacekeepers.' New Leader, 20 March 1989, pp. 12-15.



Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peacekeeping. Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to the Statement Adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992. New York: United Nations, 1992.

U.S. Institute of Peace. The Research and Studies Program: Conducting Studies and Public Debate about Issues in International Peacemaking and Conflict Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace, 1992.

Lewis, Paul. 'U.N. Set to Debate Peacemaking Role; Far-Reaching Proposals for a Collective Security Setup May Renew Divisions.' New York Times, 6 September 1992, p. 4(N), 7(L).

Renner, Michael G. 'A Force for Peace.' World Watch 5 (Jul./Aug. 1992): pp. 26-33.

'Historic Security Council Session Reaffirms Commitment to Collective Security.' UN Chronicle 29 (June 1992): pp. 4-9. [Security Council recommendations on ways to strengthen U.N. capacity for preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, and peacekeeping within the U.N. Charter's framework].

Forsberg, Randall. 'Keep Peace by Pooling Armies.' Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 48 (May 1992): pp. 41-2.

'Assembly Approves Fact-Finding Declaration, Handbook on Settling Disputes.' UN Chronicle 29 (March 1992): p. 90. [Deals with the maintenance of international peace and security].

'Agreement Reached to End 12-Year Conflict in El Salvador.' UN Chronicle 29 (March 1992): p. 80.

Meacham, James. 'From Peacekeeping to Peacemaking: United Nations Faces a Changing Role.' International Defense Review 25 (March 1992): pp. 217-8.

Lewis, Paul. 'Leaders Want to Enhance U.N.'s Role.' New York Times, 31 January 1992, p. A8. [Security Council looking for ways of strengthening the U.N.'s peacemaking capacity].

Henrikson, Alan K. Defining a New World Order: Toward a Practical Vision of Collective Action for International Peace and Security; Discussion Paper. Medford, MA: Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, 1991. [Discusses regional peacemaking efforts, the 'rule of law' and a new composition for U.N. forces]

Kourvetaris, George A. 'Beyond the Arms Race: The Search for a New Paradigm of a Peaceful World.' Journal of Political and Military Sociology 19 (Winter 1991): pp. 233-52.

Foot, Rosemary. A Substitute for Victory: The Politics of Peacemaking at the Korean Armistice Talks. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Montville, Joseph V., ed. Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies. New York: Macmillan, 1990. [Contains case studies of Northern Ireland, Sri Lanka, and Sudan].

Johansen, Robert C. 'UN Peacekeeping: The Changing Utility of Military Force.' Third World Quarterly 12 (April 1990): pp. 53-70. [U.N. efforts may lead to a world without wars].

UN Peacemaking and Peacekeeping: Report of the Twentieth United Nations Issues Conference. [Muscatine, IA.]: The Stanley Foundation, 1989.

Goshko, John. M. 'U.N. Is Struggling Anew in Role as Peacemaker; A Year After Nobel Prize Honored World Organization's Forces, Fresh Concerns Arise.' Washington Post, 24 October 1989, p. A10.

'United Nations: The Dynamics of Peacemaking.' World Marxist Review 32 (April 1989): pp. 3-4. [Interview with Javier Perez de Cuellar].

Barbero, M. D. Peacemaking: the Brother of Peacekeeping or a Combat Operation. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 7 Feb. 1989. [Concludes that the two operations are fundamentally different and that it would be dangerous to expect a tactical commander to transition from one operation to the other successfully].

Urquhart, Brian. 'Conflict Resolution in 1988: The Role of the United Nations.' In SIPRI Yearbook 1989, pp. 445-60.

Kahn, Lynn S. Peacemaking: A Systems Approach to Conflict Management. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988.

Diehl, Paul F. 'When Peacekeeping Does Not Lead to Peace: Some Notes on Conflict Resolution.' Bulletin of Peace Proposals 18, No. 1 (1987): pp. 47-53.

Quandt, William B. Camp David: Peacemaking and Politics. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, c1986.

Vayrynen, Raimo. 'Is There a Role for the United Nations in Conflict Resolution?' Journal of Peace Research 22, No. 3 (1985): pp. 189-96. [Analyzes various U.N. resolutions and peacekeeping operations].