The views expressed in FMSO publications and reports are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policy or position of the Department of the Army,
Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.


Dr. Timothy L. Sanz
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth,KS.

VOL. 4, NO. 4, WINTER 1995, PP. 676-696.


Western Political Analyses

Military Aspects

Balkan Countries

Baltic Countries

Central European Countries

Russian Federation and Other C.I.S. Countries

Since the announcement of NATO's Partnership for Peace Program in January 1994 a significant amount of literature has been published concerning the political issues involved, ramifications of implementing the Program and misgivings or outright opposition to it. So that defense officials and analysts can study not only Western reactions to the Program but also the various signatory countries' views as well, this bibliography brings together citations to the most significant literature from both the Western and East European presses.

The citations are arranged with an initial section containing a multitude of diverse political issues from Western analysts and journalists. Following this, a section addresses strictly military issues involved with carrying out the Program. Sections then follow with either Western analyses of a particular signatory country's reactions to the Program or views emanating directly from the country's own press. The following broad geographical headings are used: Balkan Countries; Baltic States; Central European Countries; and Russian Federation and Other C.I.S. Countries. The citations under each section are listed in reverse chronological order, so that the latest literature will be highlighted.


Kemp, Ian, 'UK Call for Caution But Backs NATO Expansion', Jane's Defence Weekly, 26 Aug. 1995, p. 13.

Connors, Stephen, David G. Gibson, and Mark Rhodes, 'Caution and Ambivalence over Joining NATO', Transition, 11 Aug. 1995, pp. 42-6. [General public in East Europe unsure of support].

Mihalka, Michael, 'Eastern and Central Europe's Great Divide over Membership in NATO', Transition, 11 Aug. 1995, pp. 48-55.

Dobbs, Michael, 'Nato's Next Step: Its Expansion Eastward Would Mean Greater Obligations for the U.S.', Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 31 July-5 Aug. 1995, pp. 6-8.

Nunn, Sam, 'The Future of NATO in an Uncertain World: Expansion Deserves Thorough and Careful Consideration', Vital Speeches of the Day, 15 July 1995, pp. 583-6.

Hoagland, Jim, 'NATO: The Case for Holding Back', Washington Post, 22 June 1995, p. A31. [Discusses views of retired General Jack Galvin].

'NATO, Partnership for Peace, OSCE, and NATO Information Sources', US Department of State Dispatch, 5 June 1995, pp. 483-9. [Discusses the organizations created to further the work of NATO and the PFP].

Christopher, Warren, 'Broadening and Deepening the Partnership for Peace', US Department of State Dispatch, 5 June 1995, p. 475-6. [Overview of progress made in the program].

Silverberg, David, 'Partnership for Peace is Turning Out to Have More Vitality than Anyone Expected', Armed Forces Journal International (June 1995): pp. 68-9.

Mandelbaum, Michael, 'Preserving the New Peace: The Case Against NATO Expansion', Foreign Affairs (May/June 1995): pp. 9-13. [Translated into Russian in SShA: Ekonomika, politika, ideologiya (Aug. 1995): pp. 59-63.

Kramer, Michael, 'Summit-Time Blues', Time, 22 May 1995, p. 42. [Discussion of NATO expansion at the Summit conference in Moscow]

George, Bruce and John Borawski, 'Continental Drift', European Security (Spring 1995): pp. 1-25.

Asmus, Ronald D., Richard L. Kugler, and F. Stephen Larrabee, NATO Expansion: The Next Steps', Survival (Spring 1995): pp. 7-33.

Brown, Michael E., 'The Flawed Logic of NATO Expansion', Survival (Spring 1995): pp. 34-52.

Kamp, Karl Heinz, 'The Folly of Rapid NATO Expansion', Foreign Policy (Spring 1995): pp. 116-29.

Odom, William E. 'NATO's Expansion: Why the Critics Are Wrong', National Interest (Spring 1995): pp. 38-49. Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 'Fifty Years After Yalta, a New Chance for Europe and the Balkans', Transition, 12 May 1995.

'NATO Expansion: The Criteria Conundrum', IISS Strategic Comments, 4 May 1995, pp. 3-4.

Perry, William J., 'Beginning the World Anew through Partnership for Peace; Remarks at the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, May 1995', Defense Issues 10/59 (1995): pp. 1-6.

Williams, Geoffrey L., 'NATO's Expansion: The Big Debate', NATO Review (May 1995): pp. 9-14.

Hunter, Robert E., 'Enlargement: Part of a Strategy for Projecting Stability into Central Europe', NATO Review (May 1995): pp. 3-8. [Discusses the three-part strategy of the program].

Holbrooke, Richard C., 'The Future of NATO and Europe's Changing Security Landscape', US Department of State Dispatch, 17 April 1995, pp. 319-25.

Sharp, Jane M. O., 'Tasks for NATO I: Move East and Revise the CFE', World Today (April 1995): pp. 67-70.

Borawski, John, 'Partnership for Peace and Beyond', International Affairs (April 1995): pp. 233-46.

Roychowdhury, Rajyasri, 'Nato's Eastward Expansion: An Institutional Challenge', Strategic Analysis (April 1995): pp. 73-90.

Sunley, J. "Tasks for NATO: Improve the Partnership for Peace', World Today (April 1995): pp. 70-1.

Morrison, James W. NATO Expansion and Alternative Future Security Alignments (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, April 1995). [McNair Paper 40].

Holbrooke, Richard, 'America, A European Power', Foreign Affairs 74/2 (March/April 1995): pp. 38-51. [Need for expansion and civilian control of militaries; Translated into Russian in SShA: Ekonomika, politika, ideologiya (Aug. 1995): pp. 46-55].

Barber, Ben, 'U.S. Says NATO Should Lend an Ear to Russians', Washington Times, 21 Feb. 1995, p. 1.

Whitney, Craig R., 'Expand NATO? Yes, Say Most Experts, But What Does the Public Think?', New York Times, 10 Feb. 1995, p. A6.

Schmitt, Eric, 'U.S. Fight for Uzbeks? No Way, Pentagon Says', New York Times, 10 Feb. 1995, p. A6. [Secretary Perry's testimony on Partnership for Peace before House National Security Committee; Discusses apprenticeships in the program].

Priest, Dana, 'Not All partners Will Join NATO, Perry Concedes', Washington Post, 9 Feb. 1995, p. A26.

Erlanger, Steven, Pressure on NATO to Expand: As Russians Fight, More Lands Apply', New York Times, 8 Feb. 1995, p. A11. Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 'A Plan for Europe', Foreign Affairs (Jan./Feb. 1995): pp. 26-42. [Discusses issues related to the expansion, the defining of criteria for admission, and issues with Ukraine].

Mihalka, Michael, 'Creeping toward the East', Transition (Jan. 1995)[1994 in Review issue: Part I]: pp. 80-5. Simon, Jeffrey, Central European Civil-Military Relations and NATO Expansion (Washington, D.C.: Institute for National Strategic Studies, 1995).

Brown, H., Chairman, and Ch. Kupchan, Project director, Should NATO Expand? Report of an Independent Task Force (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., 1995). [Translated into Russian in SShA: Ekonomika, politika, ideologiya (Aug. 1995): pp. 64-75.

Kissinger, Henry, 'Expand NATO Now', Washington Post, 19 Dec. 1994, p. A27. Safire, William, 'Strategic Dilemma', New York Times, 1 Dec. 1994, p. A33. [Editorial on NATO and Eastern Europe].

Desantis, H., 'Romancing NATO--Partnership for Peace and East European Stability', Journal of Strategic Studies (Dec. 1994): pp. 61-81.

Clarke, J. G., 'Beckoning Quagmires--NATO in Eastern Europe', Journal of Strategic Studies (Dec. 1994): pp. 42-60.

Bell, C. 'Why an Expanded NATO Must Include Russia', Journal of Strategic Studies (Dec. 1994): pp. 27-41.

Johnsen, William T. and Thomas-Durell Young, 'NATO Expansion and Partnership for Peace: Assessing the Facts', RUSI Journal (Dec. 1994): pp. 47-53.

De Santis, Hugh, 'Romancing NATO: Partnership for Peace and East European Stability', Journal of Strategic Studies (Dec. 1994): p. 61+.

Nelson, Daniel N., 'NATO: Use Only in Moderation', The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (Nov./Dec. 1994): pp. 32-5+. [Proposes the establishment of a companion organization instead of expansion].

'Don't Rush to Expand NATO', New York Times, 30 Nov. 1994, p. A22. [Editorial].

Kupchan, Charles, 'Expand NATO--and Split Europe', New York Times, 27 Nov. 1994, sec. 4, p. 11.

Zimmermann, Tim, 'NATO Rumbles to the East', U.S. News & World Report, 21 Nov. 1994, pp. 68-9. [U.S. wants to expedite admission of the partners].

Sciolino, Elaine, 'U.S. Wants to Expedite Entry of Eastern Nations into Alliance (NATO)', New York Times, 27 Oct. 1994, p. A5.

Brock, George, 'A Military Kabuki Play', The Spectator, 1 Oct. 1994, p. 18-20.

Dunay, Pal, 'NATO and the East: A Sea of Mysteries', World Policy Journal (Fall 1994): 123-7.

Kupchan, Charles A., 'Strategic Visions', World Policy Journal (Fall 1994): pp. 112-22.

'Europe: Partners for What?', Economist, 24 Sept. 1994, pp. 49-50.

Mihalka, Michael, 'European-Russian Security and NATO's Partnership for Peace', RFE/RL Report, 26 Aug. 1994, pp. 34-45.

Johnsen, William T. and T. D. Young, Partnership for Peace: Discerning Fact from Fiction (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 15 Aug. 1994). [Available through NTIS].

Butler, Vera, 'Europe: Partnership for Peace May Unravel Mainsprings of War', Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter (Aug. 1994): pp. 26+.

Khmelevskaja, Macha, 'European Security Depends on NATO's Eastward Expansion', Defense News, 11 July 1994.

Christopher, Warren, 'Transforming the NATO Alliance to Meet New Security Needs', US Department of State Dispatch, 20 June 1994, pp. 396-8.

Simon, Jeffrey, 'NATO's New Strategic Task: Stabilizing the East', Joint Force Quarterly (Summer 1994): pp. 36-45.

Blank, Stephen, 'New Challenges to European Security', Strategic Review (Summer 1994): pp. 40-9.

von Moltke, Gebhardt, 'Building a Partnership for Peace', NATO Review (June 1994): pp. 3-7.

Mey, Holger H., 'New Members--New Missions: The Real Issues Behind the New NATO Debate', Comparative Strategy (April-June 1994): pp. 223-9.

'Foundation Stone: Interview with SACEUR, Gen. Joulwan', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/3-4 (1994): pp. 12-14.

'NATO's Partnership for Peace', RFE/RL Research Report, 25 March 1994, pp. 1-43. [4 articles].

Roos, John G. 'Partnership for Peace', Armed Forces Journal International (March 1994): pp. 17-20.

Sloan, Elinor, 'Partnership for Peace: A Subtle Shift in NATO Strategy', Canadian Defence Quarterly 23/3 (March 1994): pp. 19-24.

Richardson, Robert C., III., 'Saving the NATO Partnership', Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies (Spring 1994): pp. 13-20.

'Partnership with NATO: The Future--Together?', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994). [Entire issue]

Sutton, Michael, 'Commentary: NATO is Dead, Long Live NATO', European Trends (First Quarter 1994): pp. 5-8. [A renovated NATO may make a crucially important contribution to Europe's security and defense arrangements].

Ruehl, Lothar, 'Jenseits der "Partnerschaft fuer den Frieden": Eine neue Demarkationslinie durch Europa?', Europa Archiv, 25 Feb. 1994, pp. 101-8.

'President Clinton's Partnership for Peace is Part of the Plan to Expand NATO in the New World Order', New American, 21 Feb. 1994, p. 4+.

Lippman, Thomas W., 'NATO Peace Partnership's New Look: A Protective Shield against Moscow', Washington Post, 8 Feb. 1994, p. A11.

Karatnycky, Adrian, 'Another Chance for NATO', National Review, 7 Feb. 1994, pp. 57-9.

Pastinen, Ilkka, 'The Lion and the Lamb', Unitas 66/2 (1994): pp. 19-21. [Program considered a half measure that does not provide for the security of the countries involved].

Mann, Paul, 'NATO Looks Eastward, with Trepidation', Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 Jan. 1994, p. 20. [Fears of rapid expansion].

Geipel, Gary L., 'Partnership for Peace Already Needs Overhaul', Christian Science Monitor, 12 Jan. 1994, p. 23. [Commentary].

Gore Jr., Albert, 'Forging a Partnership for Peace and Prosperity', US Department of State Dispatch, 10 Jan. 1994, pp. 13-16.

Kramer, Michael, 'The Case for a Bigger NATO', Time, 10 Jan. 1994, pp. 36-7. [Importance of giving NATO protection to the fledgling democracies].

'Partnership for Peace: An Invitation', NATO Press Communique M-1(94)2, 10 Jan. 1994, pp. 1-2.

Whitney, Craig R., 'NATO Plight: Coping with Applicants', New York Times, 4 Jan. 1994, p. A4.

Gordon, Michael R., 'U.S. Opposes Move to Rapidly Expand NATO Membership', New York Times, 2 Jan. 1994, p. 1+.

Aspin, Les, 'NATO's Partners for Peace', Defense, no. 1 (1994): pp. 25-7.

'Partnership for Peace: Invitation and Framework Document', US Department of State Dispatch, 1 Jan. 1994 [vol. 5 suppl.], p. 5+.

Institute for National Strategic Studies, Central European Security, 1994: Partnership for Peace (PFP) (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, 1994). [Strategic Forum, no. 1, 1994].

Partnership for Peace: A NATO Initiative (London: Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 1994).

Bailey, R. B., NATO Moves East. Final Report (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air War College, 1994). [Available through NTIS].

Goldstein, Walter, ed., Security in Europe: The Role of NATO after the Cold War (London: Brassey's, 1994). [Contains a section on the proposed admission of Eastern European countries; papers from the 21st Standing Conference of Atlantic Organizations].

Clarke, Jonathan, 'Replacing NATO', Foreign Policy (Winter 1993/1994): pp. 22-40.

Christopher, Warren, 'Strengthening the Atlantic Alliance through a Partnership of Peace', US Department of State Dispatch, 13 Dec. 1993, pp. 857-9.

Aspin, Les, 'NATO's Partners for Peace: Based on Remarks to the Atlantic Council of the United States, Washington, 3 Dec. 1993', Defense, no. 1 (1994): pp. 25-7.

von Moltke, Gebhardt, 'NATO and Eastern Europe: Cooperation and Partnership in Security', NATO's Sixteen Nations 38/5-6 (1993): pp. 9-11.

Van Heuven, Marten, Partnership for Peace: An American View (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1993).

Kissinger, Henry, 'Not This Partnership', Washington Post, 24 Nov. 1993, p. A17.

'Quiet on the Eastern front', National Review, 15 Nov. 1993, pp. 20-2. [NATO offer of partnership arrangement for Eastern Europe].

Nelan, Bruce W., 'Should NATO Move East?', Time, 15 Nov. 1993, pp. 68-9.

McCarthy, James P., 'Strengthening Security in Central and Eastern Europe: New opportunities for NATO', Strategic Review (Winter 1993): pp. 54-60.

Simon, J., 'Does Eastern Europe Belong in NATO?', Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs (Winter 1993): pp. 21-35.

Baldwin Jr., Rosser, 'Addressing the Security Concerns of Central Europe Through NATO', European Security (Winter 1993): pp. 545-66.

Greenwood, Ted, 'NATO's Future', European Security (Spring 1993): pp. 1-14.

Ruehle, Michael, 'NATO's Evolving Role in the New Europe', European Security (Autumn 1992): pp. 262-72.

Baker, James A. III, 'FY 1993 Foreign Assistance Request--Partnership for Peace', US Department of State Dispatch, 24 Feb. 1992, pp. 121-5.


Ide, Douglas, 'Cooperative Nugget', Soldiers (Nov. 1995): pp. 17-20. [Exercise Cooperative Nugget at Ft. Polk, LA., August 1995].

Fields, Gary, 'East, West Practice Partnership for Peace', USA Today, 25 Aug. 1995, p. A6. [PFP exercise at Ft. Polk, LA.].

Johnsen, William T., NATO Strategy in the 1990s: Reaping the Peace Dividend or the Whirlwind? (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 25 May 1995).

Lange, Gunnar, 'The PCC--A New Player in the Development of Relations between NATO and Partner Nations', NATO Review (May 1995): pp. 30-4. [Partnership Coordination Cell (PCC) in Mons, Belgium responsible for coordinating military structures].

'Partnership Pact Faces Hurdles as Pace Quickens', Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 March 1995, pp. 54-5. [Problems of equipment interoperability and funding].

Joulwan, George A., 'NATO's Military Contribution to Partnership for Peace: The Progress and the Challenge', NATO Review (March 1995): pp. 3-6. [NATO's military commands working with the new militaries in Central and Eastern Europe].

Borawski, John and Macha Khmelevskaja, 'NATO's Partnership for Peace: A Critical View', International Defense Review (Defense '95): pp. 15-18.

Joulwan, George A., 'New NATO: New Strategy, New Structure, and New Programs', International Defense Review (Defense '95): pp. 4-6+.

Szayna, Thomas S. and F. Stephen Larrabee, East European Military Reform After the Cold War (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, National Defense Research Institute, 1995).

Ruehle, Michael and Nicholas Williams, 'Partnership for Peace: A Personal View from NATO', Parameters 24/4 (Winter 1994/95): pp. 66-75.

Masters, Burton L., 'European Reservists in Partnership For Peace', Officer (Dec. 1994): pp. 33-4.

Rose, Charlie, 'Democratic Control of the Armed Forces: A Parliamentary Role in Partnership for Peace', NATO Review (Oct. 1994): pp. 13-17. [Congressman Rose discusses the role of the various European parliaments to keep the militaries under democratic control].

'Partners for What? NATO Countries Have Begun to Hold Military Exercises with Former Warsaw Pact Countries to Show that Partnership for Peace is not Just Post-cold War Waffle', Economist, 24 Sept. 1994, pp. 49-50.

Perlez, Jane, 'The Cold War Armies Meet, Just to Link Arms', New York Times, 15 Sept. 1994, p. A4. [Joint military exercises in Poland the week of 11 September].

Spencer, David, 'Partnership for Peace--FMIB Solves Question of Equipment Compatibility', Inscom Journal, 1 Sept. 1994, p. 7+.

Roos, John G., 'Partners for Peace to Practice in Poland', Armed Forces Journal International (Sept. 1994): p. 57.

Beard, Robin, 'Defence Procurement Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe', NATO Review (Aug. 1994): pp. 20-4. [Efforts at coordinating military procurement and technology].

Kemp, Ian, 'Working with the Partners', Jane's Defence Weekly, 18 June 1994, p. 29+. [Joint training under the Partnership for Peace program].

Kitfield, James, 'Reconcilable Differences?', Government Executive 26/6 (June 1994): p. 61+. [Deals with different military cultures and incompatible equipment].

Pengelley, Rupert, 'NATO's Co-Operation Crucible', International Defense Review (May 1994): p. 36. [Students from Eastern Europe in SHAPE's NATO school].

Covault, Craig, 'Czechs Modify Force, Seek NATO Acceptance', Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 March 1994, p. 53.

Siccama, Jan Geert and Theo van den Doel, eds., Restructuring Armed Forces in East and West (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994). [Covers the possible integration of Poland, Slovakia and Hungary into Western defense organizations].


Boyadzhieva, Milena, 'V NATO ochakvat molbata ni za chlenstvo', Demokratsiya, 15 June 1995, p.1.

________, 'Tryabva da izrazim zhelanie za chlenstvo v NATO do kraya na 1995', Demokratsiya, 14 June 1995, p. 1.

________, 'Do Esenta NATO shche reshi dali shche se razshiryava', Demokratsiya, 13 June 1995, p. 1.

Beaver, Paul, 'Jane's Interview (with Romanian Maj. Gen. Gheorghe Rotaru, Director of Political Analysis and International Relations)', Jane's Defence Weekly, 14 Jan. 1995, p. 32.

Andreeeva, Petya, 'Bulgaria: The Professional with a N.A.T.O. Future', The Insider: Bulgarian Digest Monthly, 4/9 (1994): p. 17. [Conversation with David Hassett, U.S. Navy attache].

Engelbrekt, Kjell, 'Bulgaria's Evolving Defense Policy', RFE/RL Research Report, 19 Aug. 1994, pp. 45-51. [Includes section on relations with NATO].

Ionescu, Dan, 'Romania Adjusting to NATO's Partnership for Peace Program', RFE/RL Research Reports, 4 March 1994, pp. 43-7.

Melescanu, Teodor Viorel, 'Partnership for Peace--A Way out of the Past', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 46-7. [Romania].

Serreqi, Alfred, 'Albania, the Partnership for Peace and the Democratic Process', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 8-9.

Daskalov, Stanislav, 'Bulgaria and NATO--Partnership for Stability in a Changing World', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 11-12.

Gabanyi, Anneli Ute, 'Rumaeniens Sicherheit und die NATO', Suedosteuropa 43/1-2 (1994): pp. 1-17.

Momceva, Veneta, 'Bulgarien: Die neuen Wege der veraenderten Sicherheit', Suedosteuropa (Munich) 42/11-12 (1993): pp. 661-6.


Lashkevich, Nikolai, 'Balts are Offended that They're Last in Line for NATO', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 27 Sept. 1995, pp. 25-6. [Translated from Izvestiya, 2 Sept. 1995, p. 3].

'NATO Commander: Membership Next Year?', Baltic Independent, 7-13 July 1995, p. 4. [Interview with Gen. Joulwan].

'US Holds NATO Door Open', Baltic Independent, 30 June-6 July 1995, p. 2.

'Baltic Officials Welcome Newest Partner for Peace', Baltic Independent, 9-15 June 1995, p. 2. [Russia's entry into the program].

'Al Gore Pledges Support to Baltics in Joining NATO', Baltic Independent, 17-23 March 1995, pp. 1-2.

Safire, William, 'Baltics Belong in a Big NATO', New York Times, 16 Jan. 1995, p. 17.

McCurry, Michael, 'Expanded Military and Defense Cooperation with the Baltic States', US Department of State Dispatch, 6 June 1994, p. 378.

Luik, Juri, 'Right Step in the Right Direction at the Right Time--Estonia's View of PFP (Partnership for Peace)', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 17-19.

Andrejevs, Georgs, 'Search for Security in Common Structures', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 35-6. [Latvia].

Gylys, Povilas, 'Lithuania's Partnership with NATO', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 41-2.


Tusa, Francis, 'Middle European (the Czech Republic) Takes Giant Steps Westward', Armed Forces Journal International (June 1995): p. 72.

Spitkova, Timea, 'Havel Says NATO Might Welcome Czech Republic with Nuclear Arms', Prague Post, 19-25 April 1995, p. 1.

'Let Us in, Say the Czechs', Economist, 15 April 1995, p. 51. [Discussion of the impressive Czech armed forces and its entry into the program].

Perlez, Jane, 'Poland's Premier is Seeking NATO Membership during 1996', New York Times, 6 April 1995, p. A9.

Uvarov, S. 'Khotyat li polyaki v NATO?', Sovremennaya Rossiya, 1 April 1995.

Szubrycht, Tomasz, 'Is the Polish Navy Ready for NATO?', U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (March 1995): pp. 65-6.

Pienkos, Donald E., 'Poland, the Issue of NATO Expansion and the Polish American Congress', Polish Review XL/2 (1995): pp. 181-95.

Pszczel, Robert, 'Polish Perceptions of the Partnership for Peace Initiative', International Defense Review (Defense '95 issue): pp. 19-21.

Szayna, Thomas S. and Ronald D. Asmus, German and Polish Views of the Partnership for Peace (Santa Monica, CA.: Rand Corporation, 1995).

Tret'yakov, M., 'Vnov' pugayut Rossiyey: Pol'sha stremitsya v NATO', Pravda, 1 Nov. 1994, p. 3.

Wieczorek, Pawel, 'Jak daleko do NATO? (Partnerstwo dla Pokoju)', Wojsko i wychowanie, no. 11 (1994): pp. 72-7.

Szkoda, Jerzy and Leszek Orlowski, 'Wyposazenie wojska Polskiego w nowoczesne wozy bojowe w aspekcie programu "Partnerstwo dla Pokoju"', Mysl wojskowa (Nov.-Dec. 1994): pp. 75-80.

Piatkowski, Krystian, 'Outline and Timetable for the Integration of Poland into NATO', European Security (Autumn 1994): pp. 501-28.

Kolodziejczyk, Piotr, 'Poland--A Future NATO Ally', NATO Review (Oct. 1994): pp. 7-9.

Szonyi, Istvan, 'Hungary and NATO: What is at Stake', Suedosteuropa (Munich) 9/10 (1994): pp. 561-9.

Korbonski, Andrzej, 'The Polish Army at a Time of Change', RFE/RL Research Report, 29 July 1994, pp. 17-22.

Perlez, Jane, 'Poles will Press Clinton on NATO Membership', New York Times, 5 July 1994, p. A5.

Soczewica, L., Poland in NATO: A Case Study of the United States Foreign Policymaking Process (Monterey, CA.: Naval Postgraduate School, June 1994). [Master's thesis--available through NTIS].

Novotny, Jaromir, 'The Czech Republic--An Active Partner with NATO', NATO Review (June 1994): pp. 12-14.

de Weydenthal, Jan B., 'Poland Builds Security Links with the West', RFE/RL Research Report, 8 April 1994, pp. 28-30.

Karkoszka, Andrzej, 'Dilemmas of the Partnership for Peace', Polish Quarterly of International Affairs (Spring 1994): pp. 13-24.

Zieleniec, Josef, 'Partnership for Peace--The Perspective from Prague', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 14-15.

Kukan, Eduard, 'Slovakia--Cooperation with NATO', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 54-5.

Olechowski, Andrzej, 'From Partnership to Membership', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 44-5.

Jeszenszky, Geza, 'Our Wish is to be Firmly Anchored (with NATO Membership)', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 29-31. [Hungary].

Kovac, Michal, 'Slovakia and the Partnership for Peace', NATO Review (Feb. 1994): pp. 15-18.

Lewis, Paul, 'U.S. Offers Joint Military Games as Step to Poland's NATO Ties', New York Times, 8 Jan. 1994, p. 1+.

Ottaway, David B., 'War Games in Poland Proposed: E. European Officials Reluctantly Endorse NATO "Partnership"', Washington Post, 8 Jan. 1994, p. A1.

Perlez, Jane, 'NATO Commitment Sought by Poland: Foreign Minister Sees Russia Filling a Security Vacuum in Eastern Europe', New York Times, 12 Dec. 1993, p. 9. [Views of A. Olechowski].


Yegorov, Vadim, 'Plans for NATO Expansion; First Russian Deputy Defense Minister Sees Them as a Historical Mistake; Special Adviser to NATO Secretary General Thinks that This Process Cannot be Reversed', Nezavisimaya gazeta, 21 October 1995, p. 2. [In Russian].

Pushkov, Alexei, 'NATO Announces Goals for Expansion', Moscow News [US edition], 6-12 Oct. 1995, p. 6. [Moscow should rethink its foreign policy].

Todres, Vladimir, 'NATO-East: A Sensation that did not Happen', Segodnya, 29 Sept. 1995, p. 1. [Issue of nuclear weapons in the new NATO territory; in Russian].

Felgengauer, Pavel, 'NATO Expansion is an Unsuitable Compromise', Segodnya, 28 Sept. 1995, p. 1. [In Russian].

Koretsky, Aleksandr, 'North Atlantic Alliance is Willing to Accommodate Moscow', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 18 October 1995, p. 21. [Translation from Kommersant Daily, 21 Sept. 1995, p. 3].

Kuzio, Taras, 'Ukraine and the Expansion of NATO', Jane's Intelligence Review (Sept. 1995): pp. 389-91.

Bluth, Christoph, 'Russian Policy towards NATO', Jane's Intelligence Review (Sept. 1995): pp. 394-6.

Toom, Aleksey and Andrey Smirnov, 'NATO Can Take Soviet Military Bases without a Fight', Kommersant Daily, 29 Aug. 1995, p. 4. [Paldiski Naval Base in Estonia; In Russian].

Visens, Yelena, 'Russia's Relations with NATO are Evolutionary in Nature', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 16 Aug. 1995, pp. 21-2. [Translation of interview with Vitaly Churkin in Segodnya, 22 July 1995, p. 4.].

Mihalka, Michael, 'Continued Resistance to NATO Expansion', Transition, 11 Aug. 1995, pp. 36-41.

Migranyan, Andranik, 'Russia and NATO', Moskovskaya pravda, 2 Aug. 1995, p. 9. [Russia's future stance concerning NATO; in Russian].

Felgengauer, Pavel, 'Russian Generals Aren't Interested in NATO Countries' Good Intentions--As Professionals They Have to Consider the Worst-Case Scenario', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 19 July 1995, p. 31. [Translation from Segodnya, 23 June 1995, p. 9].

'That NATO Headache', Economist, 1 July 1995, pp. 19-20. [Russia's discontentment with the enlargement of NATO].

Rogov, Sergei, 'Russia and the United States: A Partnership or Another Disengagement?', International Affairs [Moscow](July 1995): pp. 3-11.

Trenin, Dmitri, 'NATO: How to Avoid Confrontation', International Affairs [Moscow] (July 1995): pp. 20-6.

________, 'Confrontation: Russian Defense Ministry Defeats Foreign Ministry', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 28 June 1995, pp. 24-5.

'Partners in Appeasement', National Review, 26 June 1995, pp. 22-3. [Editorial asserting Russia's goal in jointing PFP is to derail NATO's expansion into Central and Eastern Europe].

Korotchenko, Igor, 'The Army: General Staff Has Doubts', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 14 June 1995, p. 20.

Pushkov, Alexei, 'Russia-NATO Crisis Put Off Till Fall', Moscow News [US edition], 2-8 June 1995, p. 6.

Christopher, Warren, 'Russia Crosses the Threshold into Active Engagement with NATO', US Department of State Dispatch, 5 June 1995, pp. 474-5.

Evangelista, Matthew, 'NATO Stay Away from My Door', Nation, 5 June 1995, pp. 795-6. [Russia's opposition to NATO expansion].

Erlanger, Steven, 'Russia to Activate Role in NATO Partnership', New York Times, 2 June 1995, p. A5.

Slocombe, Walter, 'Partnership for Peace and NATO-Russian Relations; Remarks to the Center for Strategic and International Studies, March 1995', Defense Issues 10/28 (1995): pp. 1-4.

Burke, Justin, 'A Russian Bear Dons New NATO Clothing', Christian Science Monitor, 1 June 1995, p. 6. [Formal entry of Russian Federation into PFP on 31 May 1995].

Arbatov, A. 'NATO and Russia', Security--Dialog (June 1995): pp. 135-46.

Felgengauer, Pavel, 'The Russian Defense Minister Has Won over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Russia Has Defined its Position on NATO: Moscow's Participation in the Partnership for Peace will be Conditional', Segodnya, 31 May 1995, p. 1. [In Russian].

Zolotarev, Pavel, 'Rashireniye NATO: Ob"yektivnaya neizbezhnost' ili iskusstvennyy tupik?', Nezavisimaya gazeta, 19 May 1995, p. 3. [Views of the head of the MOD's information analytical center].

Gaydar, Yegor, 'Rossiya XXI veka: Ne mirovoy zhandarm, a forpost demokratii v Yevrazii', Izvestiya, 18 May 1995, p. 4.

Lukin, Vladimir, 'Chto stroitsya v Yevrope: Novyy dom ili staryy zabor?', Izvestiya, 12 May 1995, p. 3.

Apple, Raymond W., 'The Growth of NATO: Will Moscow Go Along?', New York Times, 11 May 1995, p. A10.

Friedman, Thomas L., 'Eye on the Prize', New York Times, 10 May 1995, p. A23. [Editorial on why NATO expansion jeopardizes Russian ratification of START II].

Frolov, V. L., '"Rasslablennoye sderzhivaniye" kak realistichnaya paradima otnosheniy Rossii i Nato', SShA: Ekonomika, politika, ideologiya (May 1995): pp. 61-8.

Straus, Ira L., 'Russia in NATO: U.S. Expert Believes All Counter-Arguments Unfounded', New Times (May 1995): pp. 46-8.

Pravda, Alex, 'Russia and European Security: The Delicate Balance', NATO Review (May 1995): pp. 19-24.

'Yeltsin Urges New Alliance, Decries NATO Expansion', Boston Globe, 30 April 1995, p. 10.

Churkin, Vitaliy, 'Russia Has Never Had Any Conflicts with NATO', Segodnya, 25 April 1995, p. 9. [In Russian].

Pushkov, Aleksey, 'Rossiya--NATO: Opasnyye igry v lovesnom tumane', Moskovskiye novosti, 2-9 April 1995, p. 13. [Interview with Yuriy Baturin; English translation: 'Russia and NATO: Dangerous Games in a Verbal Mist', Moscow News [U.S. edition], 7-13 April 1995, p. 5.

Abarinov, V., 'Atlantisty i patrioty: Gruppovoy portret v inter'yere', Segodnya, 7 April 1995, p. 3.

Kobrinskaya, I., '"Kak reagirovat" na rasshireniye NATO', Moskovskiye novosti, 26 March-2 April 1995, p. 5; Translated in Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 26 April 1995, p. 24.

Davydov, Yuriy, 'Rossiya mozhet "prodat'" svoye soglasiye na rashireniye NATO', Segodnya, 24 March 1995, p. 3.

Pushkov, A., 'Kogda ministr oprovergayet prezidenta', Moskovskiye novosti, 19-26 March 1995, p. 7.

Williams, Daniel, 'Christopher's Talks with Russian Indicate Splits on Major Issues', Washington Post, 24 March 1995, p. 28.

Smith, R. Jeffrey and Daniel Williams, 'Russia Intends to Pursue Guarantees from NATO', Washington Post, 11 March 1995, p. 21.

Belyayev, V., 'Rossiya i NATO', Literaturnaya Rossiya, 10 March 1995, p. 2.

Velichkin, Alexander, 'NATO as Seen through the Eyes of the Russian Press', NATO Review (March 1995): pp. 20-3. [Contains summaries of numerous Russian press articles concerning PFP].

'U.S., Russia Wrangle over NATO, Summit', Moscow Times, 26 Feb. 1995, p. 20.

'Rybkin: Russia Eyes Political NATO Role', Moscow Times, 19 Feb. 1995, p. 19.

Nadein, V., 'Protesty Kremlya ne ostanovyat rasshireniya NATO', Izvestiya, 15 Feb. 1995, p. 3.

________, 'Budushcheye NATO reshayetsya v Moskve', Izvestiya, 14 Feb. 1995, p. 3.

Oznobishev, S., 'Rossiya--NATO--Chechnya: Predchuvstviya i real'nost', Segodnya, 3 Feb. 1995, p. 9.

von Moltke, Gebhardt, 'Russia and NATO', RUSI Journal (Feb. 1995): pp. 8-13.

Kozin, V., 'Rasshiryayushchiysya al'yans i Rossiya: Dlya Rossii net al'ternativy zadache stat' polnoprav. chl. NATO', Segodnya, 20 Jan. 1995, p. 3.

Bertram, K, 'Rasshirit' NATO, ne pugaya Rossiyu', Moskovskiye vesti, 8-15 Jan. 1995, p. 12; English translation: 'How to Expand NATO without Scaring Russia', Moscow News, 13-19 Jan. 1995.

Weinrod, W. Bruce, 'Russia's Friend, NATO', Moscow Times, 8 Jan. 1995, p. 40.

Nikonov, Vyatcheslav A., 'Transformation of Russia--Challenges from Without', Officer (Jan. 1995): pp. 32-4. Dmitriyev, M. and G. Yevstaf'yev, '"Istoricheskoye resheniye" o rasshirenii NATO', Nezavisimaya gazeta, 31 Dec. 1994, p. 3.

Churkin, V. I., 'Rossiya--NATO: Dialog prodolzhayetsya', Trud, 28 Dec. 1994.

Lipskiy, A., 'Zapad ne khochet izolyatsii Rossii', Obshchaya gazeta, 22-28 Dec. 1994, p. 4. [Beseda s general'nym sekretarem NATO V. Klasom].

Cherepanov, A., 'NATO i sovremennaya Yevropa', Rossiya, 21-27 Dec. 1994, p. 5.

Pushkov, A., 'Mezhdu Groznym i Bryusselem', Moskovskiye novosti, 18-25 Dec. 1994, p. 9. [Ob otnoshenii Rossii k rasshireniyu NATO]

Cooperman, Alan, 'From Moscow: Now Hear This!', U.S. News & World Report, 19 Dec. 1994, p. 43. [Opposition to the expansion].

Shinkarenko, P., 'Plany rasshireniya NATO grozyat vvergnut' Yevropu v "kholodnyy mir"', Rossiyskiye vesti, 8 Dec. 1994.

Peresada, Vladimir, 'Rasshireniye NATO--delo reshennoye', Pravda, 7 Dec. 1994, p. 7.

Konovalov, Aleksandr, 'K novomu razdelu Yevropy?', Nezavisimaya gazeta, 7 Dec. 1994, p. 5.

Bell, C., 'Why an Expanded NATO Must Include Russia', Journal of Strategic Studies (Dec. 1994): pp. 27-41.

Trenin, D., 'NATO minus Rossiya ravno SBSE', Novoye vremya, no. 49 (Dec. 1994): p. 20-1.

Smith, R Jeffrey, 'Danger is Seen in Rapid NATO Expansion', Washington Post, 23 Nov. 1994, p. A16. [Ukrainian President Kuchma warns against negative Russian response].

Borisova, T.. 'NATO plyus Rossiya?: Novyye problemy yevropeyskoy bezopasnosti', Nezavisimaya gazeta, 16 Nov. 1994, p. 2.

von Mol'tke, Gebkhardt, 'Budushchiye pokoleniya obvinyat nas, yesli my upustim etot shans', Krasnaya zvezda, 4 Nov. 1994, p. 3. [O prog. partnerstva "Rossiya--NATO"].

Churkin, V., 'Nasha tsel'--partnerstvo bez syurprizov: Ob otnosheniyakh Rossii s Sovetom severoatlant. sotrudnichestva (SSAS) i NATO', Moskovskiye novosti, 23-30 Oct. 1994, p. 12.

Zanegin, Boris, 'Primeryayut atlanticheskiy khomut: K voprosu o vkhozhdenii Rossii v NATO', Pravda, 15 Oct. 1994, p. 3.

Kazantsev, B. B., 'Pervyye shagi k partnerstvu Rossii s NATO', Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn' (October' 1994): pp. 22-9; English translation: 'First Steps towards Russia's Partnership with NATO', International Affairs [Moscow](Dec. 1994): pp. 17-23.

Trenin, V., 'Budet li NATO rasshiryat'sya na Vostok?', Novoye vremya, no. 43 (Oct. 1994): pp. 18-20.

P'yankov, Ye., 'Blok NATO dolzhen byt' raspushchen', Rossiyskiye vesti, 20 Sept. 1994.

Ponomarev, Manki, 'Evolyutsiya NATO. V kakom napravlenii?', Krasnaya zvezda, 15 Sept. 1994, p. 3.

Nikonov, V., 'Rossiya i NATO: Sotrudnichestvo, neytralitet, protivovostoyaniye', Nezavisimaya gazeta, 14 Sept. 1994, p. 4.

Korionov, Vitaliy, 'Nachinali dvigat'sya po-plastunski: Rossiyskaya strategiya NATO kotoroy podygryvayet Kreml', Pravda, 7 Sept. 1994, p. 6.

Karatnycky, Adrian, 'Russia's Nuclear Grasp', New York Times, 30 Aug. 1994, p. A21. [Possible creation of new C.I.S. military alliance].

Kozyrev, Andrey, 'Rossiya--NATO: Partnerstvo vo imya yedinoy i mirnoy Yevropy', Rossiyskiye vesti, 17 Aug. 1994.

________, 'Russia and NATO: A Partnership for a United and Peaceful Europe', NATO Review (Aug. 1994): pp. 3-6.

Sarychev, V., 'K novomu obliku NATO', Delovoy mir, 10 Aug. 1994, p. 7.

Gafarly, Mekhman, 'Uzbekistan', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 10 Aug. 1994, p. 22. [Uzbekistan signs up for PFP program].

Kortunov, A., 'Vazhno li Yevrope sushchestvovaniye amerikanskogo NATO?', Novoye vremya, no. 34 (Aug. 1994): pp. 21-3.

'Russia Joins Partnership for Peace; NATO Consultations on Europe, Global Issues', Foreign Policy Bulletin (July/Aug. 1994): pp. 45-51. [Contains official statements and documents from meeting held in Brussels, May 1994].

Nikonov, Vyacheslav, 'Partnerstvo vo imya mira', Nezavisimaya gazeta, 4 July 1994.

Arbatov, Aleksey, 'Partnerstvo podpisano...Chto dal'she?', Nezavisimaya gazeta, 1 July 1994, p. 1.

Christopher, Warren and Andrei Kozyrev, 'Russia Joins the Partnership for Peace: A Historic Moment for NATO and Europe', US Department of State Dispatch, 27 June 1994, pp. 431-3.

Doughty, Nicholas, 'NATO Deal Paves Way for Russian Partnership', Moscow Times, 26 June 1994, p. 17.

Greenhouse, Steven, 'Russia and NATO Agree to Closer Military Links', New York Times, 23 June 1994, p. A3.

Migranyan, Andranik, 'Unequal Partnership', New York Times, 23 June 1994, p. A23. [Commentary on problems the agreement holds for Russia].

Sloane, Wendy, 'Russia, Turning Westward, Signs NATO Partnership', Christian Science Monitor, 23 June 1994, p.1.

'Pursued by a Bear', National Review, 13 June 1994, pp. 19-20. [Russia's request for special status within PFP].

Sciolino, Elaine, 'Russia Pledges to Join NATO Partnership', New York Times, 11 June 1994, p. 3.

Genschel, Dietrich, 'Russia and a Changing Europe', Joint Force Quarterly (Summer 1994): pp. 24-35.

Whitney, Craig R., 'NATO Bends to Russia to Allow it a Broader Relationship', New York Times, 19 May 1994, p. A3. [Special treatment within PFP as a nuclear superpower].

Simes, Dimitri, 'It Depends on Moscow What the Partnership Will Be Like', Moscow News, 29 April-5 May 1994, p. 4.

'Russia Decides to Join NATO Partnership for Peace', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 13 April 1994, pp. 5-8. [Translated from Nezavisimaya gazeta and Segodnya, 15-19 March 1994].

Nikonov, Vyacheslav, 'Partnerstvo vo imya NATO?', Moskovskiye novosti, 3-10 April 1994.

Sloane, Wendy, 'Russia Wants Special Status in NATO Partnership', Christian Science Monitor, 7 April 1994, p. 8.

Stanley, Alessandra, 'Russian Aide Voices Doubts on Joining NATO Group', New York Times, 1 April 1994, p. A3. [V. V. Kostikov].

Konovalov, Aleksandr and Sergey Oznobishchev, '"Partnerstvo vo imya mira": Doroga, kotoruyu predstoit vybrat' Rossii', Segodnya, 26 March 1994.

Migranyan, Andranik, 'Zachem vstupat', yesli luchshe ne vstupat?', Nezavisimaya gazeta, 15 March 1994, p. 1.

Saudabayev, Kanat, 'Kazakhstan and NATO--Towards an Eurasian Security System', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 33-4.

Chikvaidze, Alexandre, 'On the Way to Partnership (for Peace)', NATO's Sixteen Nations 39/2 (1994): pp. 27-8. [Georgia].

Karaganov, Sergey, 'U dverey NATO my dolzhny okazat'sya pervymi', Izvestiya, 24 Feb. 1994, p. 4.

Pushkov, Alexei, 'Russia and the West: An Endangered Relationship?', NATO Review (Feb. 1994): pp. 19-23. [Influence of the expansion on Russian foreign policy].

Polreich, M., 'Building a New NATO at Russia's Expense', Foreign Affairs (Jan./Feb. 1994): pp. 174-5.

Poleshchuk, Andrei, 'Russia Issues a Warning on NATO Expansion', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 22 Dec. 1993, pp. 11-13. [Translated from Nezavisimaya gazeta, 26 Nov. 1993].

Erlanger, Steven, 'Russia Warns NATO on Expanding East: Intelligence Officer Says Move Would Require Moscow to Take Countermeasures', New York Times, 26 Nov. 1993, p. A11.

Crow, Suzanne, 'Russian Views on an Eastward Expansion of NATO', RFE/RL Research Report, 15 Oct. 1993, pp. 21-4.

Karaganov, Sergey, 'Rashireniye NATO vedet k izolyatsii Rossii', Moskovskiye novosti, 19 Sept. 1993.

Stepashin, Sergey, 'Russia and NATO: A Vital Partnership for European Security', RUSI Journal (Aug. 1993): pp. 11-17.

Wettig, Gerhard, 'Moscow's Acceptance of NATO: The Catalytic Role of German Unification', Europe-Asia Studies 45/6 (1993): pp. 953-72.