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This article appeared in

Military Review

March-April 2002

There are many safe havens in the world where terrorists and criminals can plan, prepare, sustain, and deploy. South America is home to at least two such places, which the authors describe in the following articles. However we categorize forces working against U.S. national interests -- whether they are motivated by profit, resentment, revenge, a strategic scheme, or some combination of these - we can find correlations on the world map. Outlaws thrive in places where the lack or loss of civilizing standards encourages their criminal organizing or radical politics. In this new age of electronics and drug profits, lawless places empower international criminal enterprise and violent political expression. These are the decisive points that must be neutralized if we are going to deny sustaining bases to international criminals and terrorists.

In Colombia - A Terrorist Sanctuary?

Paraguay's Ciudad del Este and the New Centers of Gravity