WARNING!
The views expressed in FMSO publications and reports are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

Nuclear Terrorism: Published Literature Since 1992

by Dr. Timothy L. Sanz
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS.

Military Review Logo This article appeared in

Military Review

July/August 1997

Titles of some articles or books on terrorists' potential use of nuclear materials are indeed foreboding:

"When Terrorists Go Nuclear"; "It's the Ultimate Nuclear Nightmare: Terrorist with the Bomb"; Time Bomb: How Terrorists and the Russian Mafia Threaten the World with a Nuclear Nightmare; "Arms Experts Fear Nuclear Blackmail"; Nuclear Terrorism: Rethinking the Unthinkable; "Nukes on the Loose: The End of the Cold War Has Made Nuclear Terror More Likely"; "When Terrorists Go Nuclear: The Ingredients and Information Have Never Been More Available"; "Be Very Afraid"; or "Smuggling of Nuclear Materials--Deadly Game."

Just how real is the threat and most importantly, what can or is being done to combat or prevent it from occurring? These are vital questions not only for this country but also for the entire world's population. Scholars, scientists, government and military officials all have a pressing need to access and analyze the literature written on this topic in order to produce and refine an effective and coherent security policy. This research serves to fill this need by identifying and bringing together in one place citations to the multitude of publications on this topic.1

Much has been written about this topic in the open-source press.2 This researcher used the research sources of a multitude of databases, CD-ROMs, and indexes, including those of the Rand Corporation, UCLA Library, National Defense University Library, Pentagon Library, Georgetown University Library, Combined Arms Research Library at Fort Leavenworth, the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, and World-Wide Web sites.3

A large part of the literature on this topic addresses the question of the security of nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union (see section I below). Other articles or books assess the actual extent of the threat by individuals, terrorist groups or even nations (see sections II and III). The next section (IV) compiles citations concerning the security of nuclear power plants. Of utmost importance, if the threat is real or imminent, what preventive or legal measures can world governments take to stave off this possibility or punish those responsible for it? Sections V and VI provide citations to articles addressing these issues. Section VII lists World-Wide Web sites dealing with nonproliferation issues and provides a myriad of links to other sites dealing with this issue. Following all the citations is a synopsis of publications that this researcher deems to be of special importance and relevance to Department of Defense and N.A.T.O. officials who are currently or will be working in the future to counter this threat.

Summary of Categories

Under each section the citations are listed alphabetically by author or by title, if no author is given. Annotations concerning the subject matter of many articles are provided following many citations.

  1. Nuclear Weapons Security in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
  2. Threat Assessments
  3. Threats by Nation States
  4. Security of Nuclear Facilities
  5. Countermeasures/Prevention
  6. Legal Aspects of the Problem
  7. World-Wide Web Sites

Synopsis of Publications of Special Relevance to Defense Officials

Concluding Remarks

I. NUCLEAR WEAPONS SECURITY IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION AND EASTERN EUROPE

Allen, Arthur. "Operation Hades." New Republic, 21-28 August 1995, 12-13.

Investigation "Operation Hades" into nuclear smuggling.

Allison, Graham T. et al. Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy: Containing the Threat of Loose Russian Nuclear Weapons and Fissile Material. CSIA Studies in International Security, no. 12. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1996.

Presents concerns that nuclear material from nuclear-warhead dismantlement in Russia will be released into a nuclear establishment ill-prepared to deal with it and that a resulting nuclear black market might bring about the collapse of the nuclear non-proliferation system based on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty; provides several concrete proposals that Western Governments and Russia's MinAtom should accomplish in order to solve the proliferation problem.

Andreyev, Igor. "CIS Special Services Unite, but Later than the Criminal World." Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 12 April 1995, 21-22.

Agreement to cooperate on fighting organized crime, nuclear terrorism, and other crimes.

Barry, John. "Future Shock." Newsweek, 24 July 1995, 32-5.

Weakening of Russia's control over nuclear weapons.

"Basayev's Threat of Nuclear Terrorism Assessed." Rossiya, 23-29 August 1995, 1-2, as translated in FBIS-SOV-95-163, 51-52.

Beck, Michael, Gary Bertsch, and Igor Khripunov. "The Development of Nonproliferation Export Control in Russia." World Affairs (Washington, D.C.) (Summer 1994): 3-18.

Belyaninov, Kirill. "Nuclear Nonsense, Black-Market Bombs, and Fissile Flim-Flam." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50 (March/April 1994): 44-50.

Undercover journalists deal with the nuclear black marketeers or "ventilators".

Bolsunovsky, Alexander and Valery Menshchikov. "Security Lacking at Nuclear Weapons Depots." Moscow News, 9-15 December 1994, 14.

Includes list of nine facilities in dire need of protection and control.

Booth, Ken. "Loose Nukes and the Nuclear Mirror: The Dangers and Opportunities Resulting from the Breakup of the Soviet Union." Arms Control, no. 1 (1992): 140-50.

Bukharin, Oleg A. "Meeting the Challenges of Dismantlement." Transition, 17 November 1995, 30-33.

Describes factors compromising safety during dismantlement.

________ and William Potter. "Potatoes Were Guarded Better: Stealing Nuclear Fuel from the Storage Building at Sevmorput Was--and May Still be--Easy." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 51 (May-June 1995): 46-51.

________. "Nuclear Safeguards and Security in the Former Soviet Union." Survival 36 (Winter 1994-95): 53-72.

________. The Threat of Nuclear Terrorism and the Physical Security of Nuclear Installations and Materials in the Former Soviet Union. Monterey, CA: Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, 1992.

"Chelyabinsk: Special Unit Formed to Fight Nuclear Terrorism." ITAR-TASS, 1459 GMT, 14 April 1995, as translated in FBIS-SOV-95-073, 33.

Unit formed in closed town of Ozyorsk, formerly Chelyabinsk-65.

Combating Fissile Material Smuggling in the Former Soviet Union. Colorado Springs, CO: USAF Institute for National Security Studies, June1995.

Combating Fissile Materials Smuggling Workshop #2, 5 December 1995. Colorado Springs, CO: USAF Institute for National Security Studies, 1995.

Cooperman, A. and K. Belianinov. "Moonlighting by Modem in Russia." U.S. News & World Report, 17 April 1995, 45+.

Scientists working for countries trying to produce nuclear weapons.

Davydov, Valery. An Annotated Bibliography of Soviet and CIS Studies on Nuclear Proliferation. Monterey, CA: Monterey Institute of International Studies, Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, 1992.

DeWing, Martin J. The Ukrainian Nuclear Arsenal: Problems of Command, Control, and Maintenance. Monterey, CA: Program for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, October 1993.

Edwards, Rob. "Germany Issues Nuclear Smuggling Alert." New Scientist, 20 August 1994, 5.

"Estimated Russian (C.I.S.) Stockpile, September 1995." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists." (September/October 1995): 62-63+.

"Even the CIA Does Not Know How Much Uranium Do We Have, and Neither Do We." Russia & CIS Today, 26 November 1993, 4-5.

Estimate by Victor Mikhailov of the Ministry of Atomic Energy to be1200 metric tons; originally published in Novaya gazeta, 25 November1993, 1.

Galdi, Theodor. The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program for Soviet Weapons Dismantlement: Background and Implementation, CRS Report 93-1057F Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 29 December 1993.

"General Discusses Status of Nuclear Arsenal." Krasnaya zvezda, 26 November 1993, as translated in FBIS-SOV-93-228.

Interview with General Ye. Maslin, chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate.

Gordon, Michael R and Matthew L. Wald. "Russian Controls on Bomb Material are Leaky." New York Times, 18 August 1994, A1.

Gordon, Michael R. "Russian Aide Says Gangsters Try to Steal Nuclear Material." New York Times, 26 May 1994, A5.

Statement by Mikhail Yegorov of the Organized Crime Control Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs that organized crime is attempting to infiltrate military facilities.

Hanley, Charles J. "Russian Nuke Security Examined." Associated Press, 28 March 1995. Database online. Available from NEXIS Library.

Heinemanngruder, A. and M. Petersen. "Nuclear Proliferation from the CIS." Osteuropa 43, no. 5 (1993): 429-40.

Text in German.

Heinrich, Andreas and Heiko Pleines. "Russia's Nuclear Flea Market' Tempts Smugglers." Transition, 17 November 1995, 9-11.

Discusses some myths and hazards involved with the transport and storage of these materials.

Hersh, S. M. "The Wild East." Atlantic Monthly 273 (June 1994): 61-63.

Describes organized crime and the security of Russia's nuclear arsenal.

Hibbs, Mark. " Fairy Tales' in Munich." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (November/December 1995): 5-7.

Reviews the facts about the 1994 plutonium smuggling and the trial.

________. "Attali Bombshell a Real Dud." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (September/October 1995): 5-6.

________. "Nuclear Smuggling--Czechs Seize Migrating Uranium." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (March/April 1995): 13-14.

________. "Plutonium, Politics, and Panic." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50 (November/December 1994): 24-31.

Stolen nuclear material discovered in Munich on 10 August 1994.

Hileman, Bette. "Nuclear Theft Poses Growing Security Threat." Chemical & Engineering News, 11 September 1995, 24-25.

Hearings by Senator Richard Lugar on preventing terrorists access to nuclear materials in Russia and other former Soviet States.

________. "Tighter Nuclear Safeguards Needed to Stop Thefts." Chemical & Engineering News, 12 September 1994, 17-18.

Natural Resources Defense Council experts recommend that International Atomic Energy Agency's threshold amounts be lowered.

________. "U.S. and Russia Face Urgent Decisions on Weapons Plutonium." Chemical & Engineering News, 13 June 1994, 12-25.

Possible removal of up to 150 metric tons of plutonium from weapons.

"How to Steal an Atom Bomb." Economist, 5 June 1993, 15-16. Hughes, David. "Uranium Seizures Heighten Terrorism Concerns." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 3 April 1995, 63-64.

Recent discoveries of smuggled uranium in the Czech Republic, Ukraine, and other countries.

________. "Arms Experts Fear Nuclear Blackmail." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 January 1993, 61-62.

Enriched uranium and plutonium from the dismantling of former Soviet weapons.

Imal, Ryukichi. "Nuclear Weapons in the Former Soviet Union." Plutonium no. 3 (1993): 18-32.

Isby, David C. and Thomas H. Johnson. "Post-Soviet Nuclear Forces and the Risk of Accidental or Unauthorized Limited Nuclear Strikes." Strategic Review 21 (Fall 1993): 7-21.

"Istochniki yadernoy opasnosti." [Sources of Nuclear Danger] Segodnya, 5 January 1994, 6.

Includes a map showing risks at various nuclear power plants in Russia.

Ivanov, Igor. "Nuclear Safety and Security in the Modern World. International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy and International Relations 42/3 (1996): 65-71.

The author is the First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia.

Kamp, Karl-Heinz. "Die Sicherheit der sowjetischen Atomwaffen." [Security of Soviet Atomic Weapons] Europa Archiv, 25 October1991, 593-600.

Kaufman, Jonathan. "Poland Moves to Stop Nuclear Smuggling." Boston Globe, 21 October 1992.

Kaurov, Georgiy. "SShA opasayetsya za nashe yadernoye oruzhiye." [The U.S. is Fearful of Our Nuclear Weapons] Kontinent, 10 November 1995, 8.

Minatom official criticizes U.S. concerns over the disposition of Russia's nuclear facilities.

Kirichenko, Elina. "Sistema eksportnogo kontrolya Rossii v tselyakh nerasprostraneniya oruzhiya massovogo unichtozheniya." [Russia's System of Export Control for the Nonproliferation of WMD] Yadernyy kontrol' (May 1995): 15-17.

Discusses Russia's export controls on nuclear weapons which meet all IAEA standards.

Kisliak, S. "A New Dimension of Nuclear Security." International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy and International Relations 42/3 (1996): 119-27.

The author is the Director of the Department on Safety and Disarmament Issues.

Kukanov, Dmitry and Natalya Timashova. "Will Russia's Nuclear Umbrella Be Left Without Proper Supervision." Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 11 October 1995, 23.

Presidential order no. 350 concerning inspections of facilities; originally published in Izvestiia, 15 September 1995, 1-2.

Kulik, Mikhail. "The Great Uranium Caper." Moscow News, 8-14 December 1995, 10.

Problem of storing nuclear materials on the Northern Fleet.

"Kurchatov Institute Guards against Nuclear Terrorism." Moscow 2x2 Television in Russian, 0700 GMT, 18 October 1995, as translated in FBIS-SOV-95-202, 38.

Concern about the Shamil Basayev terrorist groups.

Kurchatov, Alexander. "Nuclear Arsenals for Terrorists." Moscow News, 11-17 September 1996, 4.

The nuclear submarine Komsomolets sunk in the Norwegian Sea which contains 116 kilograms of reactor-grade uranium and over six kilograms of plutonium-239 in two nuclear warheads.

Josephson, Paul R. "Russian Scientific Institutions: Internationalisation, Democracy and Dispersion." Minerva 32 (Spring 1994): 1-24.

Possibility of Russian nuclear scientists working for terrorists.

Lee, Rensselaer W. III. "Post-Soviet Nuclear Trafficking: Myths, Half-Truths, and the Reality." Current History (October 1995): 343-48.

A summary of smuggling of nuclear materials since 1991.

"Lithuania Shuts Reactor." New York Times, 15 November 1994), A7(N), A12(L).

Lockwood, Dunbar. "U.S., Russia Reach Agreement for Plutonium Site Inspections." Arms Control Today (April 1994): 22.

Markushin, Vadim. "Russia and Germany: Together against Nuclear Terrorism." Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 14 September 1994, 6.

Originally published in Krasnaya zvezda, 24 August 1994, 3.

Masland, Tom et al. "For Sale." Newsweek, 29 August 1994, 30-32.

Plutonium from Russia on the European market.

Mikhailov, Victor, et al. "Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy and Nuclear Weapons Safety." International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy and International Relations 42/3 (1996): 72-102.

The author is the Minister for Nuclear Power of the Russian Federation.

________. "Establishment of Bilateral System of Response to Nuclear Weapons Crisis Situation." International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy and International Relations 42/3 (1996): 103-118.

"Minister Mikhaylov on Safeguarding of Nuclear Materials." Yadernyy kontrol' (February 1995): 9-11, as translated in FBIS-SOV-95-046-S, 2-5.

Interview with Russian Federation Minister of Atomic Energy.

Morrocco, John D. "U.S. Takes Charge of Uranium Cache." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 28 November 1994, 27.

Uranium from weapons in Kazakhstan.

"Moscow Summit on Nuclear Security and Safety." International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy and International Relations 42/3 (1996): 1-64.

A summary of the summit held in Moscow, April 19-20, 1996. Contains the following subsections: Russia's Position on Nuclear Issues; Declaration of the Moscow Summit; Program for Combating Nuclear Trafficking; Statement on Nuclear Test Ban Treaty; Statements on Ukraine and Middle East; B. Yeltsin and J. Chirac: Press Conference after the Summit; Russiaand the World: Cooperation in the Nuclear Field; The Main Aspects of Nuclear Security; and Nuclear Power Plants in Russia.

Mueller, Harald. "Fissile Material Smuggling: German Politics, Hype and Reality." Arms Control Today 24, no.10 (December 1994): 7-10.

Discusses incidents of smuggled Russian materials.

"MVD General Reports No Theft of Nuclear Weapons Materials." Moscow INTERFAX in English, 1312 GMT, 10 October 1995, as reported in FBIS-SOV-95-196, 45-46.

Interview with General Andrey Terekhov of the Russian Interior Ministry.

National Public Radio. "Nuclear Safety and Security in Russia." 4-part series, 16-19 April 1996.

May be ordered under transcripts #1847, segment #5; #1848, #6; 1849, #5; 1850, #6.

Nelan, Bruce W. et al. "Formula for Terror: The Former Soviet Arsenal is Leaking into the West, Igniting Fears of a New Brand of Nuclear Horror." Time, 29 August 1994, 46-52.

"Nuclear Facilities' Defenses Prepared for Terrorism." INTERFAX in English 1922 GMT, 9 February 1995, as reported in FBIS-SOV-95-028, 12-13.

Interview with Georgiy Kaurov, Head of the Information Department of the Russian Nuclear Energy Ministry on possible Chechen extremist actions.

"Nuclear Materials Security Said Ineffective." Rossiya, 21-27 September 1994, 4 as translated in JPRS-TND-94-019, 304.

"Nuclear Safeguard System Reliable, Costly." Krasnaya zvezda, 17 June 1995, 3, as translated in FBIS-TAC-95-014-L.

"Nuclear Smuggling." Maclean's, 5 September 1994, 28.

"Odin shag vpered, dva nazad." [One Step Forward, Two Back] Nezavisimaya gazeta, 17 October 1995, 6.

Report of the Russian Nuclear Radiation and Safety Supervision Committee; In the first half of 1995 reports of 19 incidents of radioactive materials at unsecured locations.

"Operation Sapphire." Maclean's, 5 December 1994, 35.

Sale of uranium by Kazakhstan to the U.S. to prevent terrorists' access.

Orlov, Vladimir. "No Buyers, but Sellers are Ready." Moscow News, 18 August 1995, 4.

Officials working to find a solution to the theft problem.

________. "A Threat of Nuclear Terrorism Exists in Russia." Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 19 July 1995, 26-27.

Interview with General Yevgeniy Maslin stating that a real threat of nuclear terrorism exists in Russia; originally published in Moskovskiye novosti, 25 June-2 July, 1995, 14; also published in Moscow News, 7 July 1995, 14.

________. "Black Holes of Red Mercury." Moscow News, 13 August 1993, 11.

"O pervoocherednikh merakh po sovershenstvovaniyu sistemy uchota i sokhrannosti yadernikh materialov." [On Immediate Measures to Improve the Inventory and Protection System of Nuclear Materials] Rossiyskaya gazeta, 21 September 1994, 4.

Ostanin, Sergey. "General Rules out Nuclear Terrorism in Russia." ITAR-TASS, 11 January 1996. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Senior military leader says no chance of this possibility because of strict security measures fully financed by the state.

Parrish, Scott. "Nuclear Arms--A Soviet Legacy." Transition, 17 November 1995, 6-8.

Problems of avoiding nuclear proliferation and complying with international agreements.

Piest, Jochen and Matthias Schepp. "Stoking up the Nuclear Bazaar." World Press Review 41 (November 1994): 10-11.

Translation of Stern article on confiscation of radioactive material on airplane from Moscow to Munich.

"Poka chto ni odin yadernyy boyepripas v Rossii ne propadal i ne byl pokhishchen." [For Now Not One Nuclear Stockpile in Russia has been Lost or Stolen] Yadernyy kontrol' (May 1995): 9-14.

Interview with Yevgeniy Maslin, Director of the 12th Directorate of the Russian Ministry of Defense; asserts that Russia safely transports nuclear materials and that smuggling is no worse in Russia.

Potter, William. "Before the Deluge? Assessing the Threat of Nuclear Leakage from the Post-Soviet States." Arms Control Today 25, no. 8 (October 1995): 9-16.

Leakage is not necessarily inevitable if corrective measures are taken.

________ et al. Nuclear Profiles of the Soviet Successor States. Monterey, CA: Program for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, May 1993.

_____. "Nuclear Exports from the Former Soviet Union: What's New, What's True." Arms Control Today (January/February 1993): 3-10.

"Psst for Plutonium." Economist, 30 July 1994, 26.

Attempts to keep plutonium away from clandestine bomb makers

Romanenkova, Veronika. "Russian Ministry Sounds Tough over Nuclear Threats." ITAR-TASS, 9 February 1995. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Response of the Russian Nuclear Energy Ministry to Dudayev's threats that "nuclear terrorism in Russia is possible."

"Rossiyskiye militsionery i atomshchiki oprovergayut mify o russkoy yadernoy mafii'." [Russian Police and Atomic Scientists Refute the Myths about the "Russian Nuclear Mafia"] Segodnya, 11 October 1995, 6.

Report by Andrey Terekhov of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of 52 illegal materials dealings in 1993-94 and 13 in 1995.

"Russian Mafia can Steal Nuclear Materials." Reuters, 14 October 1995.

Based on reports of "60 Minutes" and U.S. News & World Report four tons of beryllium and 19.8 pounds of cesium were stolen in 1993.

"Russian Security Chief Admits Nuclear Terrorism Danger." The Xinhua News Agency, 27 February 1996. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Mikhail Barsukov states it is "quite possible" for terrorists to seize nuclear weapons.

"Russian Weapons Plutonium Storage Termed Unsafe by MINATOM Official." Nucleonics Week, 28 April 1994.

"Russia's Strategic Nuclear Forces under Reliable Control." Military News Bulletin (July 1994): 3.

Article appearing in a monthly publication produced by the Voeninform Agency of the Defence Ministry of the Russian Federation and Russian Information Agency Novosti.

Shapiro, Margaret. "Russia Orders Tightened Security to Protect Nuclear Materials." Washington Post, 24 February 1995, A15.

Investigations by Interior Minister Viktor Yerin into 30 smuggling cases.

Shenon, Philip. "Bombs for the Making." New York Times, 17 March 1996, sec. 4, E2.

Account of the General Accounting Office's report of nuclear material security in the former Soviet Union.

________. "Ex-Soviet A-Bomb Fuel an Easy Target for Terrorists, U.S. Says." New York Times, late NY edition, 13 March 1996, A5.

Shoumikhin, Andrei. "The Weapon Stockpiles." Comparative Strategy 14 (April/June 1995): 211-17.

Solntsev, Vladimir. "U.S. Aids Russia to Prevent Proliferation of Nuclear Materials." ITAR-TASS, 28 March 1996. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Some Security Problems with Nuclear Materials in Depots of Northern Fleet." Yadernyy kontrol' (February 1995): 12-15, as translated in FBIS-UMA-95-239-S, 24-30.

Smith, R. Jeffrey. "U.S. Takes Nuclear Fuel; Officials Feared Terrorism in Kazakhstan." Washington Post, 23 November 1994, A1.

Sutyagin, Igor. "Security of Russian ICBM Launch Sites." Jane's Intelligence Review 6 (August 1994): 356-57.

"Terrorist Threat to Nuclear Plants Denied." Komsomol'skaya pravda, 22 February 1995, 2, as translated in FBIS-SOV-95-039, 20-21.

Interview with Georgiy Chirov, chief of "Rosenergoatom" Department for Physical Protection of Nuclear Power Stations, on Chechen threats.

Thompson, M. "Sapphire's Hot Glow." Time, 5 December 1994, 38-39.

Report on smuggling from Kazakhstan.

Turbiville, Graham H., Jr. Weapons Proliferation and Organized Crime: The Russian Military and Security Force Dimension. INSS Occasional Paper 10. Colorado Springs, CO: USAF Institute for National Security Studies, U.S. Air Force Academy, June 1996.

Concludes that Russian military and security forces are the principle source of arms available to organized crime groups, participants in regional conflict, and corrupt state officials engaged in the black, gray and legal arms markets.

"Ukrainian Regulations on Nuclear Safety." Pravyla Fizychnoho zakhystu yadernoho materialu ta yadernykh ustanovok, 12 July 1994, as translated in JPRS-TND-94-007-L, 35-40.

Umbach, Frank. "Control and Security of Nuclear Weapons in the Former Soviet Union." Aussenpolitik: German Foreign Affairs Review 43 (Winter 1992): 363+.

"U.S. and Russia May Share Intelligence Services." New York Times, 19 October 1992, A4(N), A6(L).

Discussions that U.S. and Russia may pool intelligence information to fight nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and drug smuggling.

U.S. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment. Proliferation and the Former Soviet Union. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1994.

U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on European Affairs. Loose Nukes, Nuclear Smuggling and the Fissile Material Problem in Russia and the CIS. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Superintendent of Documents catalog no. Y4.F 76/2:S HRG.104-253.

" Vympel' Force to Combat Nuclear Terrorism'." INTERFAX, 1328 GMT, 19 April 1994, as translated in FBIS-SOV-94-076.

Commander of Russian Interior Troops, General Anatoliy Kulikov, reorganizes special Vympel' force.

Walker, William. "International Responses to the Threat of Nuclear Smuggling from Russia." Medicine, Conflict and Survival 12 (1996): 53-57.

Discusses efforts by the Russian, U.S., British, and other governments to control the problem.

Weglarczyk, Bartosz. "Atomic Smuggling, Cont'd." World Press Review (January 1996): 28-29.

Presents the views of Sergei Novikov, a Russian nuclear-security official, and other issues concerning weapons security in Russia.

Whitney, Craig R. "Germans Suspect Russian Military in Plutonium Sale." New York Times, 16 August 1994, A1.

"Yadernaya mafiya v Rossii: Pravda i mify." [Nuclear Mafia in Russia: Truth and Myths] Vek, 22-28 September 1995, 4-9.

Gennadiy Yevstafev, Director of the SVR, states that there is no evidence that Russian nuclear scientists are working in countries such as Libya and Iran.

Zachary, Davis and Jonathan Medalia. Nuclear Proliferation from Russia: Options for Control. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress, 1992.

II. THREAT ASSESSMENTS

Abelson, Philip H. "Need for Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards." Science, 18 March 1994, 1543.

Attali, Jacques. Economie de l'apocalypse: Traffic et proliferation nucleaires [Economy of the Apocalypse: Nuclear Trafficking and Proliferation] Paris: Fayard, 1995.

Badolato, Edward V. and Dale Andrade. "Red Mercury: Hoax or the Ultimate Terrorist Weapon?" Counter terrorism and Security (Spring 1996): 18-20.

Barnaby, Frank. "Nuclear Accidents Waiting to Happen." World Today (April 1996): 93-95.

Discusses safety of reactors, illicit trade of materials, and safe management of plutonium and uranium.

________. "Red Mercury: Is There a Pure-fusion Bomb for Sale?" International Defense Review 27 (June 1994): 79-81.

________. "Nuclear Terrorism." Safe Energy (June-July 1993): 10-12.

________. "Nuclear Threats." Medicine and War (April/June1992): 74-86.

________. The Role and Control of Weapons in the 1990s. London; New York: Routledge, 1992.

Discusses proliferation in the Third World, nuclear terrorism, and environmental damage

Beckman, John. "The Clock is Still Ticking; Unstable Regions, Terrorists Push the World a Little Closer to the Nuclear Brink." Los Angeles Times, 29 February 1996, B2.

Begley, Sharon, Daniel Pedersen et al. "Chain Reaction: It's the Ultimate Nuclear Nightmare: Terrorists with the Bomb. Could They Make One?" Newsweek, 12 July 1993, 50-51.

"Blackmail Threat from Nuclear Terrorists' Viewed." Neue Kronen-Zeitung, 13 September 1994, 10-11, as translated in JPRS-TND-94-019, 35.

Bluth, Christoph. "Nuclear Proliferation 2: Assessing the Risks." World Today 49 (August-September 1993): 146-47.

"BND: Arab Terrorists Buying Nuclear Material." Bild, 24 April 1995, as translated in FBIS-WEU-95-078, 13-14.

Boyar, Robert E. "Senator Lugar Warns about U-235 Bombs." Insight on the News, 25 March 1996, 27.

Brooks, Linton. "New Nuclear Threat." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 120 (May 1994): 52-55.

Cameron, Gavin. "Nuclear Terrorism: A Real Threat?" Jane's Intelligence Review (September 1996): 422-26.

Cetron, M. J. and O. Davies. "The Future Face of Terrorism." Futurist 28, no.6 (1994): 10-15.

Cheek, Gary H. Coping with Mass Destruction: United States Power Projection in the Nuclear and Chemical Third World. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1993.

Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction may cause grave consequences for power projection forces in the future.

Cohen, Sam. "The Coming Neutron Bomb Threat." Wall Street Journal, 15 May 1996, A14.

Possible use by terrorists of the byproduct of nuclear fusion.

Crowell, Todd. "Nukes on the Loose: The End of the Cold War Has Made Nuclear Terror More Likely." Asiaweek, 6 October 1995, 50-56.

Cover story; contains the following subsections: "Diversions: Examples of Nuclear Smuggling; Ground Zero: What If a Terrorist Bombed Hong Kong?; Danger: Five Spots in Asia to Worry about; Testing: Why Nations Feel They Must Explode Their Bombs".

De Santis, Hugh and Marvin Ott. "Rating Clinton Policy on Nuclear Terrorism; Administration Long on Talk, Short on Real Effort to Halt Nukes." Christian Science Monitor, 14 December 1993, 22.

Eberle, J. "Nuclear Proliferation 1: The Politics of Fear." World Today 49, nos. 8-9 (1993): 144-46.

Edwards, Rob. "Cherry Red and Very Dangerous." New Scientist, 29 April 1995, 4-5.

Discusses the dangers of "red mercury", a powerful chemical explosive.

Evancoe, Paul R. "Germinating Technology Feeds A-weapon Scenario: Illegal Acquisition of Enriched Uranium, Plutonium Becomes the Source of Deep International Concern." National Defense 79 (October 1994): 18-19.

Falk, Bernhard. "Nuklearkriminalitat in Deutschland." [Nuclear Criminality in Germany] Journal Kriminalistik (May 1995): 323-29.

Presents how Germany's internal security has changed because of the diversion of nuclear materials.

Fialka, John J. "Nuclear Terrorism Threat is Growing, Senate Panel is Told." Wall Street Journal, 14 March 1996, A8.

Testimony of Sarah A. Mullen before the Permanent Investigations Subcommittee.

"FIS' Yevstafyev on World Proliferation." Yadernyy kontrol' (January 1995):12-15, as translated in JPRS-TAC-95-002, 99-104.

Interview with the head of the Directorate for Arms Control and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction at the Foreign Intelligence Service of Russia.

Fischer, David. "Plutonium Smuggling: Assessing the Risk." Army Quarterly and Defence Journal 125 (January 1995): 92-7.

Ford, James L. Nuclear Smuggling: How Serious a Threat? Strategic Forum series no. 59. Washington, D. C.: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, January 1996.

Galeotti, Mark. "Decline and Fall--Russian Bombs and Global Security." Jane's Intelligence Review (October 1994): 434.

Gardner, Gary T. Nuclear Nonproliferation: A Primer. New York: Lynne Reinner, 1994.

Covers the prospects of the 1994 Nonproliferation Treaty, the status of international safeguards, and other topics.

"German Study Casts Doubt on Terrorist Nuclear Bomb." Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 14 March 1995. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Discusses the report Nuclear Terrorism: Facts and Fiction which concludes that nuclear security in Russia appears far more stable than expected, that extremists are not interested in mass killings, and other assertions.

"IAEA Says Its Plutonium Threshold for Making Nuclear Bombs is Too High." Wall Street Journal, 23 August 1994, A4.

Article asserts that weapons could be made with amounts smaller than the established benchmarks.

Ikle, Fred Charles. "The Second Coming of the Nuclear Age." Foreign Affairs 75 (January/February 1996): pp: 119-128.

Fear of new threats of terrorism or catastrophic accidents.

Harrison, Charles T. "Hell in a Hand Basket: The Threat of Portable Nuclear Weapons." Military Review 73 (May 1993): 68-76.

Heron, Charles M. Probable Trends in Terrorism in Western Europe. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, December 1992.

Cover topics such as sources of terrorism, nuclear weapons materials, the Single European Act of 1993, separatist movements, cooperative efforts to combat terrorism, and other topics; available from NTIS.

Hoffman, Bruce. "Responding to Terrorism Across the Technological Spectrum." Terrorism and Political Violence 6 (Autumn 1994): 366-90.

Analyzes three salient trends in terrorism including the rise of "amateur" groups, the simplicity of the weapons, and the growing sophistication of "professional" groups.

Hughes, David. "When Terrorists Go Nuclear: The Ingredients and Information Have Never Been More Available." Popular Mechanics (January 1996): 56-59.

Explains the easy access to nuclear weapons technology.

Jenkins, Brian M. "The Limits of Terror: Constraints on the Escalation of Violence." Harvard International Review (Summer 1995): 44-45+.

Argues that currently no evidence exists the any terrorist groups have tried to obtain nuclear material and that using radioactive substances as a contaminant or hoaxes are more realistic threats.

________. "No market for Sellers of Plutonium." Los Angeles Times, 11 November 1994, B7.

States that terrorists don't have the large finances required to build a bomb.

Kamp, Karl-Heinz. "Nuclear Terrorism: Hysterical Concern or Real Risk?" Aussenpolitik: German Foreign Affairs Review 46, no. 3 (1995): 211-19.

Kiernan, Vincent. "A Little Plutonium Goes a Long Way ..." New Scientist, 27 August 1994, 7.

Claim by Natural Resources Defense Council that only 1 kg of plutonium would be necessary for one bomb.

Labbe, Marie-Helene. La tentation nucleaire [Nuclear Temptation] Paris: Payot, 1995.

Discusses the nuclear arms race, international security and nuclear terrorism; contains a bibliography, pp. 325-30.

"La proliferation nucleaire." [Nuclear Proliferation] Defense nationale 51 (August/September 1995): 23-72.

A series of articles addressing the 1968 treaty on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and the threat of nuclear terrorism; includes bibliographic references.

Lemonick, Michael D. and Janet I-Chin Tu. "Could a Free-lancer Build a Bomb?" Time, 29 August 1994, 48-49.

Lewis, William H. and Stuart E. Johnson, eds. Weapons of Mass Destruction: New Perspectives on Counterproliferation. Washington, D.C.: Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, 1995.

Contains assessments on proliferation in South Asia, North Korea, Middle East, China, and Russia and several articles on preventive approaches.

"Little Boys: Nuclear Weapons." Economist, 27 August 1994, 72.

A smaller amount of plutonium needed to explode a nuclear bomb could lead to attempts by countries or terrorist groups to build nuclear bombs.

Loehmer, Andrew. "The Nuclear Dimension." Terrorism and Political Violence 5 (Summer 1993): 48-69.

Concludes that in the near-term future chemical or biological terrorism is more likely.

Longworth, R. C. "Doomsday Clock May be Ticking in 2 Time Zones." Chicago Tribune, 8 December 1995, 1.

Suggestions for another clock to show the danger of small-scale nuclear wars or nuclear terrorism.

"Loose Nukes." Current Events, 6 November 1995, 1-2.

Assesses the black market for smuggled uranium.

Lugar, Senator Richard, Chairman. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee's European Affairs Subcommittee Hearing, Topic: Nuclear Smuggling, August 22, 1995. Database Online; Available from Dialog, Federal News Service, 00163886.

Witnesses included Paul Goble, Ret. General William Odom, and David Osias of the C.I.A.

Mann, Paul. "Mass Weapons Threat Deepens Worldwide." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 June 1996, 58-61.

Discusses the threat of weapons of mass destruction worldwide; concludes that facilities in the Former Soviet Union are just as vulnerable as in 1991.

Marrs, Robert W. Nuclear Terrorism: Rethinking the Unthinkable. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, December 1994.

Asserts that a terrorist demand exists and that a preventive campaign be established; available from NTIS.

Moore, Mike. "Nuclear Temptations." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 49 (June 1993): 14-49.

A detailed cover story.

Muller, H. "Smuggling of Nuclear Materials-- Deadly Game." Internationale Politik 50 (February 1995): 23-30.

Article in German.

Nelan. B. "The Price of Fanaticism." Time, 3 April 1995, 38-41.

Assesses Terrorists' willingness to use mass destruction weapons.

"Die neuen Risiken." [The New Risks] Internationale Politik 50 (February 1995): 3-46.

Seven articles discussing organized crime, narco- and nuclear terrorism, and arms smuggling.

"New Nightmare for Old?" New Scientist, 27 August 1994, 3.

Discusses the possibility of terrorism replacing the old nuclear fears.

Nuckolls, John H. "Post-Cold War Nuclear Dangers: Proliferation and Terrorism." Science, 24 February 1995, 1112-14.

Nunn, Sam and Auo Shinrikyo. "The New Terror: Nutcakes with Nukes." New Perspective Quarterly (Winter 1996): 32-35.

Asserts that this is the greatest threat to U.S. security and emphasizes the need for vigilance.

Perkovich, G. "The Plutonium Genie." Foreign Affairs (Summer 1993): 153-65.

Potter, William C. and Leonard S. Spector. "Nuclear Terrorism--The Next Wave?" New York Times, 19 December 1994, A15(N), A19(L).

Discusses the vulnerability of power plants or the diversion of nuclear materials.

Raine, Linnea and Frank Cilluffo. Global Organized Crime: The New Empire of Evil. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1994.

Rhodes, Richard. "Atomic Logic." Rolling Stone, 24 February 1994, 30-36.

Covers the history and use of nuclear weapons including the fantasy of the terrorist bomb, proliferation, political functions, etc.

Roberts, Guy B. Five Minutes Past Midnight: The Clear and Present Danger of Nuclear Weapons Grade Fissile Materials. INSS Occasional Paper 8. Colorado Springs, CO: USAF Institute for National Security Studies, US Air Force Academy, February 1996.

Presents the dangers, especially in the former Soviet Union, proposals to combat trafficking, disposal of stockpiles, inadequacy of IAEA safeguards, and ways to strengthen non-proliferation norms.

Roos, John G. "Ultimate Nightmare" Armed Forces Journal International (October 1995): 67-68+.

Assesses terrorism with the use of nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons.

Schmidbauer, B. "Illegaler nuklearhandel und nuklearterrorismus." [Illegal Nuclear Trafficking and Nuclear Terrorism] Internationale Politik 50 (February 1995): 19-22.

Schneider, K. "Nuclear Disarmament Raises Fear on Storage of `Triggers'." New York Times, 26 February 1992, A1.

Deals with problems of storing dismantled weapons fuel and its possible target by terrorists.

Seidman, Joel and Patricia F. Allingahm. Time Bomb: How Terrorists and the Russian Mafia Threaten the World with a Nuclear Nightmare. Bethesda, MD: National Press Books, 1995.

Seifritz, W. "Spekulationen um Rotes Quecksilber RM 20/20." [Speculations about Red Mercury RM 20/20] ATW, Atomwirtschaft, Atomtechnik 39 (August-September 1994): 585-88.

Simon, Jeffrey D. "Time for a New Look at Terrorism." USA Today, 7 December 1994, A11.

Describes the ease with which terrorists can acquire NBC materials.

Snell, Albert E. and Edward J. Keusenkothen. "Mass Destruction Weapons Enter Arsenal of Terrorists." National Defense 79 (January 1995): 20-21.

Starr, Barbara et al. "Nightmare in the Making." Jane's Defence Weekly, 3 June 1995, 23-24+.

Assesses possible nuclear, chemical and biological threats.

Stern, Jessica. "Act Now to Prevent Nuclear Terror in the Future." International Herald Tribune, 11 April 1996. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Describes how Russian Army troops sell weapons, often through Russian mafia middlemen.

Taylor, Linda E. "Global Bomb Bazaar." Canada & the World Backgrounder 60, no.6 (April 1995): 10-12.

"The Ultimate Nightmare--Sooner than Most People Expect, the United States May Face the Danger of Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Terrorism." Armed Forces Journal International (October 1995): 67+.

U. S. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment. Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Assessing the Risks. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.

Supt. of Documents no.: Y 3.5 22/2:2W 37/2.

U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Intelligence Briefing on Smuggling of Nuclear Material and the Role of International Crime Organizations, and on the Proliferation of Cruise and Ballistic Missiles: Hearing, January 31, 1995. 104th Cong., 1st sess., 1995.

Superintendent of Documents catalog no. Y 4.Ar 5/3:S.hrg.104-35.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Global Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials: Hearings before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs. 104th Cong., 2nd sess., 13, 20, 22, and 27 March 1996.

See below Synopsis of Publications of Special Relevance to Defense Officials.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Global Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Hearings before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs. 104th Cong., 1st sess., 31 October and 1 November 1995.

Vaught, James W. Jr. The Emergence of the Nuclear Industry and Associated Crime. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air Force Institute of Technology, August 1991.

Examines in chapter 2 past crimes associated with the nuclear industry such as spies, terrorists and insider crimes.

Whitney, Craig R. "Plutonium for Sale. Call 1-800-TERROR." New York Times, 21 August 1994, 1+.

________. "Who Will Buy?" New York Times, 21 August 1994, sec. 4, 1.

Discusses lack of strategies to prevent easy access to nuclear materials, the motive of money, and other issues.

Williams, Phil and Paul N. Woessner. "Nuclear Material Trafficking: An Interim Assessment." Transnational Organized Crime (Summer 1995): 206-39.

________. "The Real Threat of Nuclear Smuggling." Scientific American 274 (January 1996): 40-44.

Contends that little is being done to contain the problem of smuggling these materials.

Wines, Michael. "Aspin Orders Pentagon Overhaul of Strategy on Nuclear Weapons." New York Times, 30 October 1993, 8. Secretary of Defense Les Aspin fears new threat of nuclear terrorism.

Wright, Robert. "Be Very Afraid." The New Republic, 1 May 1995, 19+.

Cover story assessing the situation with weapons of mass destruction.

Zimmermann, Tim and Douglas Pasternak. "Critical Mass." US News & World Report, 17 April 1995, 39-44.

Assesses the new nuclear age with unwritten rules and unpredictable players.

III. THREATS BY NATION STATES

Albright, D. "An Iranian Bomb?" Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (July/August 1995): 20-26.

Brower, Kenneth. "North Korean Proliferation--The Threat to the New World Order." Jane's Intelligence Review 6 (August 1994): 376-80.

Cerami, Charles A. "Rogue States, Criminals and Terrorists Crash theNuclear Club." Insight on the News, 20 June 1994, 6-10.

Deutch, John M. "The New Nuclear Threat." Foreign Affairs 71 (Fall 1992): 120-34.

Surveys problems of nuclear proliferation, especially in Iraq, Algeria, and North Korea.

Gonzalez, Iris M. et al. The Impact of Nuclear Proliferation: The Case of Syria and Libya, 1998. Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, September 1994.

Distribution of publication limited to DOD organizations only.

Hoffman, David. "Many Obstacles Remain to Closer U.S.-Iran Ties; Tehran's Support for Terrorism, Interest in Nuclear Technology Concerns Administration." Washington Post, 6 December 1991, A39.

Kanter, Arnold and Stephen Hadley. "North Korea: The Clock is Ticking." Officer 70 (January 1994): 26-30.

Kauzlarich, David and Ronald C. Kramer. "The Nuclear Terrorist State." Peace Review 7, no. 3-4 (1995): 333-37.

Livingstone, Neil C. "Nuclear Weapons: Still the Ultimate Terrorist Threat." Sea Power 36 (February 1993): 33+.

Surveys the spread of nuclear weapons to anti-western governments.

Kahan, Jerome H. Nuclear Threats from Small States. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, June 1994.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "Lessons of the Next Nuclear War." Foreign Affairs 74 (March/April 1995): 22-37.

Assesses the political situation with hostile states.

Millot, Marc Dean. "Facing the Emerging Reality of Regional Nuclear Adversaries." Washington Quarterly 17 (Summer 1994): 41-71.

Proposes changes in U.S. nonproliferation policy, especially concerning North Korea.

Murphy, Kim. "'Rogue Nation' or Terrorist Poses Serious Nuclear Threat, Perry Says; In Cairo, the Defense Secretary Expresses Fear that Weapons-control Programs in the Middle East Could be Unraveling." Los Angeles Times, 9 January 1995, A4.

"North Korea: The Hermit Kingdom Strikes Back." Economist, 17 July 1993, 19-21.

Discusses suspected nuclear weapons program and links to international terrorism.

"North Korea Shops for Nuke Technology in Russia." Washington Times, 5 July 1994, 1.

Ottaway, David B. and Steve Coll. "U.S. Focuses on Threat of 'Loose Nukes." Washington Post, 10 April 1995, A1+.

Published as part 2 of the six-part series "Rethinking the Bomb"; Expresses concern that dictators might acquire nuclear arms.

Phillips, James A. "The Saddamization of Iran." Policy Review (Summer 1994): 6-13.

Discusses the possible build-up of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons in Iran and the exporting of terrorism.

Potter, William. "Exodus: Containing the Spread of Soviet Nuclear Capabilities." Harvard International Review (Spring 1992): 26-29, 64.

Presents confirmation by Russian nuclear officials of countries recruiting Russian scientists, reportedly involving Libya, Iraq, India, Pakistan, Brazil, India, North Korea and Cuba.

Reiss, Mitchell. "South Asia and Nuclear Proliferation: A Future Unlike the Past?" RUSI Journal 138 (December 1993): 63-7.

Discusses the situation with nuclear weapons in India and Pakistan.

Sears, Jonathan. "Northeast Asia Nuclear Threat." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 121 (July 1995): 43-46.

Timmerman, K. R. "Iran's Nuclear Menace." New Republic, 24 April 1995, 17-19.

U. S. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. North Korean Military and Nuclear Proliferation Threat: Evaluation of the U.S.-DPRK Agreed Framework: Joint Hearing, February 23, 1995, before the Subcommittees on International Economic Policy and Trade and Asia and the Pacific. 104th Cong., 1st sess., 1995.

Superintendent of Documents catalog no. Y 4.In 8/16:K 84/5.

U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs. Threat of North Korean Nuclear Proliferation: Hearings, November 25, 1991-February 6, 1992. 102nd Cong., 1st and 2nd sess., S. hearing 102-635, 1991-92.

Superintendent of Documents catalog no. Y 4.F 76/2:S.hrg.102-635.

U. S. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Security, International Organizations, and Human Rights. U.S. Security Policy towards Rogue Regimes: Hearings, July 28 and September 14, 1993, 1994.

Superintendent of Documents catalog no. Y 4.F 76/1:Se 2/23; Focuses on acquisition of nuclear weapons by Iran, Iraq, Libya and North Korea.

"Washington Goes it Alone against Iran." US News & World Report, 15 May 1995, 15.

Imposes Trade embargo for supporting terrorism and buying nuclear weapons.

Wright, Robin. "President Says He will Ban Trade with Iran." Los Angeles Times, 1 May 1995, A1.

Trade ban imposed because of encouragement of terrorism and a possible nuclear threat.

Zifferero, Maurizio. "The IAEA: Neutralizing Iraq's Nuclear Weapons Potential." Arms Control Today (April 1993): 7-10.

Zimmerman, Peter D. Iraq's Nuclear Achievements: Components, Sources, and Stature. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, February 1993.

IV. SECURITY OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES AND WEAPONS

"All Eyes on Imposter-Proof Protection." Nuclear Engineering International 35 (June 1990): 54.

Description of the EyeDentify security system.

"Better Safe than Sorry." Los Angeles Times, 23 March 1994, B6.

An editorial describing the need for U.S. nuclear power plants to be upgraded for protecting against terrorism.

Broad, William J. "Moving A-arms by Rail: Can Terrorists be Foiled?" New York Times, 18 February 1992, A8(N), A6(L). U.S. to supply Russia with armored rail cars to help disassemble Russian nuclear warheads.

Carnahan, Burrus M. "Protecting Nuclear Facilities from Military Attack: Prospects After the Gulf War." American Journal of International Law 86 (July 1992): 524-41.

"Clinton Announces Widened Iranian Trade Embargo; Cites Iran's Terror Links and Nuclear Aspirations." Facts on File, 4 May 1995, 313-14.

Gill, Bob. "The Evolution of Nuclear Security." Nuclear News 35 (December 1992): 30-35.

Halverson, Thomas. "Silent Threat--Nuclear Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and the CIS." Jane's Intelligence Review 6 (August 1994): 358-62.

Hughes, Sylvia. "The Day the Commandos Dropped into a French Nuclear Plant." New Scientist, 28 April 1990, 30.

Lieberman, Joseph, Chairman. Excerpt of the Hearing of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, Clean Air and Nuclear Regulation Subcommittee. Subject: Rules and Regulations to Protect Commercial Nuclear Power Plants against Terrorism and Sabotage, 19 March 1993. Database Online; Available from Dialog, Federal News Service, 00128535.

"Marty Speer: Perspectives from a Regional Security Group." Nuclear News 35 (December 1992): 26-9.

Meyer, Christina, Jennifer Duncan and Bruce Hoffman. Force-on-Force Attacks: Their Implications for the Defense of U.S. Nuclear Facilities. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1993.

Examines assaults against 220 non-nuclear targets from the period 1983-88; distribution limited to DTIC users only.

"NRC Changes on Exports, Physical Protection." Nuclear News 36 (May 1993): 62.

Noel, James L. "Getting Ahead on Tactical Response Training at American Utilities." Nuclear Engineering International 35 (June 1990): 52-4.

Nuclear Emergency--Terrorism Response Plan. Upland, PA: Diane Publishing Company, 1994.

"Nuclear Plants Told to Build Defenses against Car Bombs." New York Times, 7 August 1994, 14(N), 29(L).

Nuclear Regulatory Commission orders plants to install barriers.

Portzline, Scott D. Nuclear Plant Terrorism. Harrisburg, PA: s.n., 1994.

Queener, D. S. "Reports, Standards, and Safety Guides." Nuclear Safety 36 (January-June 1995): 169-74.

"Threat of Terrorism Debated." Engineering News-Record, 28 February 1994, 15.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission plans to ensure security at nuclear power plants.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Regulation. Adequacy of Nuclear Powerplant Security: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Clear Air and Nuclear Regulation of the Committee on Environment and Public Works. 103rd Cong.,1st sess., 19 March 1993.

U. S. General Accounting Office. Nuclear Safety: Concerns with Nuclear Facilities and other Sources of Radiation in the Former Soviet Union. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Document No. GAO/RCED-96-4, November 7, 1995.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Division of Safeguards and Transportation. Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards. An Alternative Format for Category I Fuel Cycle Facility Physical Protection Plans, by P. Dwyer. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

"Vehicle Intrusion Systems Going up at Nuclear Plants." Nuclear News 38 (September 1995): 36.

Wald, Matthew L. "Senators Want Atomic Plants Protected against Car Bombs." New York Times, late NY edition, 20 March 1994, 26.

________. "U.S. Examining Ways to Protect Nuclear Plants against Terrorists." New York Times, 23 April 1993, A12(N), A24(L).

Nuclear Regulatory Commission analyzes precautions against terrorists.

Weinstein, Albert A. "Nuclear Security: Then and Now." Nuclear News 35 (December 1992): 38-40.

Discusses building automation systems, fault-tolerant computers, etc..

V. COUNTERMEASURES/PREVENTION

Adamson, A. and V. Bychkov. "Current Trends in the Implementation of IAEA Safeguards." Journal of Nuclear Materials Management (July 1993): 29-32.

Allison, Graham. "Time to Get Busy Buying Out the Ex-Soviet Nuclear Supermarket." International Herald Tribune, 2 May 1995. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Anderson, C. "Countering Nuclear Terrorism." Science, 15 April 1994, 337.

Aspin, Les. "Defense Counterproliferation Initiative." Defense, no.1 (1994): 28-31.

"Balance of Terror." CQ Researcher, 5 June 1992, 498.

Discusses imposing stricter measures on regulating nuclear weapons.

Benson, Sumner. "Shaping Arms Export Policy." JFQ: Joint Force Quarterly 6 (Autumn-Winter 1994-95): 84-91.

Beres, Louis Rene. "Preventing Nuclear Terrorism against the United States: 10 Vital Questions." Special Warfare (August 1996): 22-29.

See below Synopsis of Publications of Special Relevance to Defense Officials.

________. "Facing the Ultimate Nightmare: Preventing Nuclear Terrorism against the United States." TVI Report 12, no. 1 (1996): 19-24.

Discusses how to create the basis of a counter nuclear-terrorist strategy for the U.S.

________. "The Meaning of Terrorism for the Military Commander." Comparative Strategy 14/3 (July-September 1995): 287-99.

Need for conceptual clarification of terrorism and associated rejection of geopolitical definitions.

Blaker, James. "Coping with the New 'Clear and Present Danger' from Russia." Arms Control Today 25 (April 1995): 13-16.

Proposes that the U.S. and Russia place their surplus nuclear weapons under international safeguards.

Bone, James. "American Nuclear Swat Team Emerges from the Shadows." The Times, 2 January 1996. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Profiles the mission of the Nuclear Emergency Search Team.

Bradford, Hazel and Tom Ichniowski. "NRC Deals with Terrorism." Engineering News-Record, 8 August 1994, 5.

Outlines the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's work against terrorism.

________. "Hill Seeks Nuclear Anti-terror Rule." Engineering News-Record, 28 March 1994, 7.

Discusses legislation to protect nuclear power plants from sabotage.

Broad, William J. "Preparing to Meet Terrorists Bearing Plutonium." New York Times, 1 August 1993, 3.

Description of the Nuclear Emergency Search Team.

Bukharin, Oleg A. "Soft Landing for Bomb Uranium." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (September-October 1993): 44-49.

U.S. agrees to purchase 500 tons of highly enriched uranium from Russia.

Bundy, McGeorge, William J. Crowe, Jr. and Sidney Drell. "Reducing Nuclear Danger." Foreign Affairs 72 (Spring 1993): 140-55.

Chow, B. G. and K. A. Solomon. Limiting the Spread of Weapon-Usable Fissile Materials. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1993.

Analyzes the economics of nuclear materials from dismantled weapons and spent fuel from nuclear power plants.

"CIA Chief Warns of Nuclear Diversion from Russia." Agence France Presse, 20 March 1996. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Deutch outlines steps that should be taken to avert a "crisis of enormous proportions" from nuclear terrorism.

Coll, Steve and David B. Ottaway. "Corralling the Loose Nukes'." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 17-23 April 1995, 8-9.

"Commentary Advocates International Nuclear Police Force." Handelsblatt (Duesseldorf), 16 August 1994, 2, as translated in FBIS-WEU-94-159, 19.

"Commission Calls for Reinforcement of Nuclear Security." Safety & Health (December 1994): 18-20.

Report by the EC on increasing controls in the trade of nuclear materials.

Committee on International Security and Arms Control. National Academy of Sciences Staff. Management & Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium, 1994.

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, September 1993.

"Cooperation against Nuclear Terrorism Urged." Obshchaya gazeta, 18-24 November 1994, 5, as translated in JPRS-TND-94-008-L, 21-23.

Contains an interview with General Gennadiy Yevstafyev.

"Countering Nuclear Terrorism." Science 264, 15 April 1994, 337.

"Europe Alert over Threat of Nuclear Terrorism." The European, 18-24 March 1994, 1-2.

Describes Interpol's establishment of a special group to combat nuclear smuggling.

"Europol Prepares to Combat Nuclear Smuggling." Frankfurter Allgemeine, 30 August 1994, 4, as translated in FBIS-WEU-94-169, 3-4.

Feaver, Peter D. "Command and Control in Emerging Nuclear Nations." International Security 17 (Winter 1992/1993): 160-87.

Fischer, David. "The IAEA and Its Special Inspections." Orbis (September 1992): 597-600.

Gander, Terry J. "Defence against a Growing Threat." Jane's Defence Weekly, 23 July 1994, 28.

Discusses the threat of weapons of mass destruction.

Gray, Malcolm and William Lowther. "The Loose Nukes'." Maclean's, 22 April 1996, 24-26.

Describes top U.S. security concern of preventing nuclear terrorism.

Hart, Kathleen. "US, Russia Unveil Cost-Effective System to Monitor Nuclear Material." Nucleonics Week, 6 April 1995, 15.

Henry, Patrick. "Russia, G-7 Agree on Total Nuclear Test Ban." Moscow Times, 12 April 1996. Database Online; Available from Lexis-Nexis.

Participants also agree to create a program to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear weapons.

Hibbs, Mark. "Russia Improving Protection for Sensitive Nuclear Sites." Nucleonics Week, 30 March 1995, 12-13.

"IAEA Spokesman Previews Nuclear Smuggling Conference." Der Standard, 2 November 1994, 2, as translated in JPRS-TND-94-020, 42.

The Impact of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Proliferation on Naval Operations and Capabilities. Washington, D.C.: Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, February 1996.

See below Synopsis of Publications of Special Relevance to Defense Officials.

The Impact of the Proliferation of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons on the United States Air Force. Washington, D.C.: Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University and Hq USAF National Security Negotiations Division, February 1996.

See below Synopsis of Publications of Special Relevance to Defense Officials.

The Impact of the Proliferation of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Weapons on United States Army. Washington, D.C.: Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, August 1995.

See below Synopsis of Publications of Special Relevance to Defense Officials.

"IAEA to Create Data Bank to Combat Nuclear Smuggling." AFP in English 1822 GMT, 3 November 1994, as reported in JPRS-TND-94-020, 42-43.

International Atomic Energy Agency on prevention of smuggling from the former Soviet Republics.

"Joint Statement on Cooperation in Promoting the Rule of Law and Combating Crime, September 28, 1994," Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, 3 October 1994, 1893-4.

Discusses the U.S.-Russian bilateral agreement to fight crime, nuclear materials smuggling, organized crime and drug trafficking.

"Joint Statement on Strategic Stability and Nuclear Security by the Presidents of the United States and Russia." Arms Control Today 24 (November 1994): 31-32.

Joseph, Robert. NATO's Response to the Proliferation Challenge. Strategic Forum no. 66. Washington, D.C.: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, March 1996.

Kiernan, Vincent. "Russia Enlists US to Track Plutonium." New Scientist, 12 August 1995.

Profiles an eight-year project by the Department of Energy and Gosatomnadzor to develop a computerized inventory of Russia's weapons-grade materials.

________. "A Bomb Waiting to Explode." New Scientist, 26 February 1994, 14-15.

Discusses the U.S. President's initiatives on combating nuclear terrorism.

Kimery, Anthony L. "Your Life May Depend on the Woman from NEST." Insight on the News, 23 October 1995, 12-14.

Describes the work of the Nuclear Emergency Search Team.

Kokeev, Mikhail. "Moscow and Lyon: Nuclear Safety." International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy and International Relations 42/4 (1996): 16-24.

Summarizes the Lyon Summit in June 1996 dealing with the global problem of nuclear safety.

Krause, Joachim. "Proliferation Risks and Their Strategic Relevance: What Role for NATO?" Survival 37 (Summer 1995): 135-148.

See below Synopsis of Publications of Special Relevance to Defense Officials.

Larrimore, James A. "IAEA Safeguards Criteria." Journal of Nuclear Materials Management (May 1993): 19-23.

Lawbook, Martin C. The Next Enemy. Strategic Forum no. 35. Washington, D.C.: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 1995.

Lippman, Thomas W. "If Nonproliferation Fails, Pentagon Wants Counter Proliferation in Place." Washington Post, 15 May 1994, A11.

Discusses a plan to ward off possible terrorist threats.

Lockwood, Dunbar. "The Nunn-Lugar Program: No Time to Pull the Plug." Arms Control Today (June 1995): 8-13.

Urges the continuation of the 1991 Soviet Nuclear Reduction Act and Cooperative Threat Reduction programs.

________. "Dribbling Aid to Russia." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 49 (July/August 1993): 39-42.

Discusses Nunn-Lugar legislation to reduce nuclear weapons.

Lown, Bernard. "Permanence May Hasten Nuclear Terrorism." Boston Globe, 10 May 1995, 19.

Argues against making the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty permanent.

Lynch, Colum. "How to Build a Bomb Treaty." Amicus Journal17, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 28-31.

Discusses the ineffectiveness of the Non-Proliferation Treaty in preventing access to nuclear materials.

Mann, Paul. "Detection Sensors Crucial, but Technically Exacting." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 June 1996, 66-69.

Funding for the research and development of sensors to combat nuclear, chemical, or biological terrorism not forthcoming.

________. "Summit to Focus on Nuclear Safety." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 26 September 1994, 23-24.

Clinton and Yeltsin to discuss more action against nuclear smuggling and other issues addressing nuclear safety.

Millot, M. D., R. Molander and A. Wilson. "The Day After..." Study: Nuclear Proliferation in the Post-Cold War World: Summary Report. 2 vols. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1993.

Report on RAND's "The Day After" project on the implications of nuclear proliferation.

"NATO Seeks Coordinated Effort on Nuclear Smuggling." PRESS ASSOCIATION in English 1630 GMT, 19 August 1994, as reported in FBIS-WEU-94-162, 1.

"New Russian Measures to Secure Fissile Material." Arms Control Today (March 1995): 31.

Orlov, Vladimir. "The Nuclear Eight: Expectations and Chances; Leaders of the Seven Leading Industrialized Countries and Russia Meet in Moscow on April 19 and 20 to Discuss Nuclear Security Problems." Moscow News, 18-24 April 1996, 1+.

Panofsky, Wolfgang K. H. "Safeguarding the Ingredients for Making Nuclear Weapons." Issues in Science and Technology 10 (Spring 1994): 67-73.

Perry, William J. " We Cannot Always Rely on Deterrence,'" Aviation Week & Space Technology, 27 May 1996, 66.

Calls for U.S. to pursue both active and passive defense strategies to combat terroristic use of weapons of mass destruction.

________. "Pursuing a Strategy of Mutual Assured Safety." Defense Issues 10, no. 3 (1995): 1-6.

Pickering, D. R. Frequency of Attack and the Safeguards and Security Risk Evaluation Process: Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Northbrook, IL: Institute of Nuclear Materials Management, 1993.

Proceedings of the 34th annual meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management.

Powers, John R. and Joseph E. Muckerman. "Rethink the Nuclear Threat." Orbis 38 (Winter 1994): 99-108.

Describes a new strategy to deal with nuclear threats.

"Proliferation: Cold War II." Economist, 11 December 1993, 28-29.

Announcement of the Pentagon's Defense Counter-Proliferation Initiative on 7 December 1993.

Quester, George H. and Victor A. Utgoff. "Toward an International Nuclear Security Policy." Washington Quarterly 17 (Autumn 1994): 5-18.

"Radioactive Materials Smuggling Defies Customs' Attempt to Halt It." Nucleonics Week, 15 April 1993.

Reed, Fred. "The World's Biggest Customs Force." Navy Times, 15 August 1994, 55-56.

Discusses the prevention of nuclear smuggling.

Reiss, Mitchell and Eliot Cohen. "The Future that Never Came." Wilson Quarterly 19 (Spring 1995): 46-66.

Ways of encouraging countries that are refraining from acquiring nuclear weapons.

Rundquist, David E. "Status and Trends of Safeguards Equipment Development." Journal of Nuclear Materials Management (May 1993): 24-30.

Ruehle, Michael. "NATO and the Coming Proliferation Threat." Comparative Strategy 13 (July-September 1994): 313-20.

Discusses possible enforcement of sanctions against proliferators.

"Rossiiskiye I Amerikanskiye uchenyye pridumali sposob borby s kontrabandoy yadernykh materialov." [Russian and American Scientists Have Devised a Method for Fighting Nuclear Materials Contraband] Izvestiya, 6 November 1994, 2.

Scientists from the U.S. and Russia working to develop a technique of "fingerprinting" nuclear materials for tracing their origin.

Scheinman, Lawrence. "Nuclear Safeguards and Non-Proliferation in a Changing World Order." Security Dialogue 23, no. 4 (1992): 37-50.

Schneider, Barry. "Nuclear Proliferation and Counterproliferation: Policy Issues and Debates." Mershon International Studies Review 38 (1994): 209-34.

Explains six approaches to proliferation theory and discusses the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, supply-side and demand-side strategies for limiting proliferation and military strategies for deterring proliferators.

Shea, Thomas et al. "Safeguarding Reprocessing Plants: Principles, Past Experience, Current Practice and Future Trends." Journal of Nuclear Materials Management (July 1993): 17-27.

Sloane, Wendy. "FBI's Moscow Mission: The Mob, Nuclear Theft." Christian Science Monitor, 5 July 1994, 6.

Describes the opening and purpose of the FBI's new office in Moscow.

________. "Countering Nuclear Terrorism: Dwindling Capabilities?" Science, 24 February 1995, 1098.

Scheinman, Lawrence. "Nuclear Safeguards and Non-Proliferation in a Changing World Order." Security Dialogue 23, no. 4 (1992): 37-50.

Smith, R Jeffrey. "Specialists Urge Better U.S. Efforts to Safeguard Ex-Soviet Nuclear Material." Washington Post, 14 March 1996, A13.

General Accounting Office's report on the security of facilities.

________. "Anti-Smuggling Effort Largely in Disarray." Washington Post, 28 August 1994, A1+.

U.S. efforts to help secure Russian nuclear facilities largely unsuccessful due to lack of funds, poor working relations with Russian officials, and other problems.

________. "Scientists Urge Clinton to Protect Plutonium." Washington Post, 25 January 1994, A3.

Panel urges more action to prevent terrorists' use of materials.

Stern, Jessica Eve. "Preventing Portable Nukes." New York Times, late NY edition, 10 April 1996, A19

Taubes, Gary. "The Defense Initiative of the 1990s." Science, 24 February 1995, 1096-1100.

Describes Pentagon's efforts to develop technologies for detecting and destroying weapons of mass destruction.

Towell, Pat. "Senate Backs Anti-Terrorism Measure." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 29 June 1996, 1885.

Passage of defense bill amendment to prevent terrorist attacks in the U.S. with NBC weapons.

U. S. General Accounting Office. Nuclear Nonproliferation: U.S. Efforts to Help Newly Independent States Improve Their Nuclear Material Controls; Statement of Harold J. Johnson, Associate Director, International Relations and Trade Issues, National Security and International Affairs Division. Washington, D.C., 13 March 1996.

Document no. GAO/T-NSIAD/RCED-96-118.

________. Nuclear Nonproliferation: Status of U.S. Efforts to Improve Nuclear Materials Controls in Newly Independent States. Washington, D.C., 7 March 1996.

Document no. GAO/NSIAD/RCED-96-89 Mar. 7, 1996.

________. Weapons of Mass Destruction: DOD Reporting on Cooperative Threat Reduction Assistance can be Improved. Washington, D.C., 29 September 1995.

Document no. GAO/NSIAD-95-191.

________. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Helping the Former Soviet Union Reduce the Threat: An Update. Washington, D.C., 9 June 1995.

Document no. GAO/NSIAD-95-165, June 9, 1995.

________. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Helping the Former Soviet Union Reduce the Threat. Washington, D.C., 6 October 1994.

Document no. GAO/NSIAD-95-7, October 6, 1994.

"U.S.-Russia Cooperation Agreements." US Department of State Dispatch, 10 October 1994, 670-5.

Agreements on nuclear security, trade and crime.

"U.S.--Russian Strategic Stability and Nuclear Security Initiatives," U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 10 October 1994, pp. 676-77.

"Vacco Seeks Death for Having A-bomb Materials." New York Times,14 December 1995, B6.

NY Attorney General seeks death penalty for anyone possessing materials to make nuclear bombs.

von Hippel, Frank. "Fissile Material Security in the Post-Cold-War World." Physics Today, 31 June 1995, 26-31.

Waller, Douglas. "Nuclear Ninjas: A New Kind of SWAT Team Hunts Atomic Terrorists." Time, 8 January 1996, 38-41.

Description of the Department of Energy's' Nuclear Emergency Search Team.

Wolf,Franklin R. Of Carrots and Sticks or Air Power as a Nonproliferation Tool. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University, July 1994.

Proposes the institutionalization of force options into nonproliferation enforcement, ideally as part of chapter 7 enforcement actions under the authority of the UN Security Council.

VI. LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM

Beres, Louis Rene. "On International Law and Nuclear Terrorism." Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 24 (Spring 1994): 1-36.

________. "The United States and Nuclear Terrorism in a Changing World: A Jurisprudential View." Dickinson Journal of International Law (Fall 1994): 327-66.

Boyle, Francis A. "Citizen Initiatives under International Law : The Criminality of Nuclear Weapons." Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives 8 (June 1989): 37-43.

Capezzuto, Louis J. "Preemptive Strikes against Nuclear Terrorists and Their Sponsors: A Reasonable Solution." New York Law School Journal of International and Comparative Law 14, nos. 2-3 (1993): 375-99.

See below Synopsis of Publications of Special Relevance to Defense Officials.

Carnahan, Burrus M. and Jacqueline R. Smith. "A Treaty to Ban Nuclear Smuggling: The Next Step in Nuclear Material Control?" Arms Control Today 24, no. 8 (October 1994): 14-17.

Evans, H. J. "The World Court Project on Nuclear Weapons and International Law." New Zealand Law Journal (July 1993): 249-52.

"First Committee: Post-Cold-War Nuclear Security Issues Debated in Disarmament Forum." UN Chronicle 32 (March 1995): 76-77.

Discusses the opinion of the International Court of Justice on the threat or use of nuclear weapons.

International Congress of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists. The Calamira Trial: Protekistan v. Calamira; A Public Trial on Legal Problems Concerning the Sale of Nuclear Weapons. Jerusalem: International Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists, 1992.

Mullins, Wayman C. "An Overview and Analysis of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Terrorism: The Weapons, Strategies and Solutions to a Growing Problem." American Journal of Criminal Justice16, no.2 (1992): 95-119.

Reye, Susan. "Nuclear Law in Central and Eastern Europe." NEA Newsletter (March 1993): 36-9.

Treiger, A. "Plugging the Russian Brain Drain: Criminalizing Nuclear-Expertise Proliferation." Georgia Law Journal 82 (November 1993): 237-67.

United Nations. International Law Committee. Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1991: v. 1, Summary Records of the Meetings of the Forty-Third Session, 29 April-19 July 1991. 1993.

Contains sections on legalities on nuclear weapons and other weapons and liabilities for damage.

Weisbecker, Jane C. "Protecting Nuclear Materials in the Terrorist Age: The International Challenge." Brooklyn Journal of International Law 12, no. 2 (1986): 305-338.

Williamson, R. L. "Law and the H-Bomb: Strengthening the Nonproliferation Regime to Impede Advanced Proliferation." Cornell International Law Journal 28 (Winter 1995): 71-167.

VII. WORLD-WIDE WEB SITES

Two of the most useful and informative sites are described below and contain a multitude of links to other related sites.

1) Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) at the Monterey Institute of International Studies http://cns.miis.edu

The Center "was created at the Monterey Institute of International Studies (MIIS) by Dr. William C. Potter to confront the serious threat of international proliferation of nuclear, missile, biological, chemical, and advanced conventional weapons. The CNS provides research tools, analysis, training, and education on nonproliferation issues to scholars and policy-makers from around the world. Since its inception in 1989, the CNS has grown into the leading U.S. center for training and research specifically on nonproliferation issues."

This site contains a list of CNS projects, publications (full-text), and access by subscription only to numerous databases maintained by CNS. The feature "CNS User's Guide to Nonproliferation Research on the Internet" is an extensive guide to related sites. This site's "Top Ten Sites for Nonproliferation Research" is especially useful for analysts researching this topic for the first time.

2) Nuclear Control Institute http:/www.nci.org/nci/index.htm

The Nuclear Control Institute "is an independent research and advocacy center specializing in problems of nuclear proliferation." It is a nonpartisan and nonprofit organization monitoring nuclear activities worldwide and pursuing "strategies to halt the spread and reverse the growth of nuclear arms." In particular, it focuses on the "urgency of eliminating atom-bomb materials---plutonium and highly enriched uranium---from civilian nuclear power and research programs."

This Institute has an especially useful area titled "Special Section Nuclear Terrorism Threat: How to Prevent It" which contains the following subsections: "Could Terrorists Build an A-Bomb with Stolen Materials?"; "Are Nuclear Reactors Vulnerable to Truck Bombs?"; "Are International Safeguards Effective in Plutonium Plants?"; "Is There a Nuclear Black Market?"; and "Valuable Links."

SYNOPSIS OF PUBLICATIONS OF SPECIAL RELEVANCE TO DEFENSE OFFICIALS

This section highlights publications cited above that this researcher deems especially important and relevant to defense officials. Detailed abstracts follow each of the citations.

Three studies produced by the Center for Counterproliferation Research of the National Defense University are especially useful in assessing the impact on the three branches of the U.S. Armed Forces in dealing with weapons of mass destruction:

The Impact of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Proliferation on Naval Operations and Capabilities. Washington, D.C.: Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, February 1996.

The stated objectives of the workshop proceedings are "to heighten the awareness within key sectors of the Navy-Marine Corps team of the rising impact on naval operations and naval capabilities of the global proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and associated technologies. The workshops emphasize the practical, operational issues associated with battle group and expeditionary naval operations mounted within a joint operational context in collaboration with allies and local, friendly military forces."

Highlights of some ideas produced by the workshop include the following:

- The NBC threat faced by the fleet is serious and growing: The BW and CW threats are especially acute.

- Fleet NBC readiness has been substantially eroded.

- On balance, naval forces bring significant strengths to operations in an NBC environment.

- A key, near-term requirement is the development of an interactive gaming method to enable operational commanders, planners and key policy officials to improve their understanding of operational tactics in an NBC environment.

The Impact of the Proliferation of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons on the United States Air Force. Washington, D.C.: Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University and Hq USAF National Security Negotiations Division, February 1996.

This report discusses initiatives aimed at coping with an adversary's possession and potential use of NBC and missiles, to include improved passive and active defenses, accelerated development of counter force and command, control, computers and intelligence (C4I) capabilities. Participants of the workshop concluded that a number of closely related conceptual, doctrinal, organizational, training, equipment, intelligence, operational and planning issues dealing with this threat have not been addressed satisfactorily.

A sampling of some of these issues includes the following:

- Effective theater air and missile defenses are crucial to protecting air bases from NBC attack and ensuring sustained air operations.

- Overseas air bases do not have the resources or people to support identification, location, and early warning of CBW attacks.

- Insufficient individual protective equipment is available for sustained operations and there is need for a collective protection capability.

- Air Force intelligence collection requirements and efforts need to place greater emphasis on adversary NBC capabilities, operational concepts, and employment doctrines.

Part II of the report contains a description of the war game and part III an extensive list of participants' recommendations.

The Impact of the Proliferation of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Weapons on United States Army. Washington, D.C.: Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, August 1995.

The four-part workshop focuses on the challenges presented to U.S. Army units in combat and non-combat operations by the proliferation of NBC weapons and missiles. Its principal objectives are "to enhance the understanding of the participants on emerging proliferation threats and problems, to assess the Army's posture in addressing these challenges, and to assist workshop participants in developing potential responses and undertaking future developments."

Workshop 1, "Establishing the Baseline," examines current intelligence estimates of the proliferation threat worldwide, U.S. Government policies, joint military approaches and initiatives, ongoing research, and an overview of the Army's applicable doctrine, concepts, and programs. This part of the workshop produced six key observations.

Workshop 2, "Research and Development," focuses on proliferation-relevant Army programs; progress in developing both active and passive defense capabilities; a counterproliferation planning and analysis tool; and the emerging results of the Joint Staff's Counterproliferation Missions and Functions Review. This workshop contains seven key observations.

Workshop 3, "Unit Operations," focuses on the impact of NBC proliferation on the operations of combat units at corps and division levels. It discusses the U.S. Army Chemical School; dismounted Battle Space Battle Lab; Army Chief of Staff guidance; studies of operations in NBC environments; and doctrine, training, leader development, and requirements for organizations, materiel, and individual soldier capabilities.

Workshop 4 concentrates on the following themes: Shaping the future; policy and strategy for the future; concepts and doctrine for the future, and requirements for the future.

Krause, Joachim. "Proliferation Risks and Their Strategic Relevance: What Role for NATO?" Survival 37 (Summer 1995): 135-148.

The article discusses NATO's June 1994 publication Policy Framework on Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction which placed concern about proliferation of these weapons high on its agenda (see NATO Review, no. 3, June 1994). NATO's publication assessed two categories of risk--WMD threats to Western armed forces operating in out-of-area missions and direct attacks against Western Europe by rogue nations. The author calls for reviewing other threats not envisioned in this document, which in turn will lead to adjustments in NBC defense, force structures and doctrines. His additional threats to consider include shifts in regional power balances, danger of accidents, erosion of international norms and systems of order, regional instabilities fueled by proliferation, and others.

Ruehle, Michael. "NATO and the Coming Proliferation Threat." Comparative Strategy 13 (July-September 1994): 313-20.

The author, a Senior Planning Officer in the Political Affairs Division of NATO, discusses those areas where a NATO role could be developed in the longer term to prevent and counter proliferation. He suggests various levels of a NATO contribution to what he calls an "assertive nonproliferation policy." At the basic level preventive diplomacy using military means would be used to defuse proliferation incentives at the core. Another level of an assertive nonproliferation policy would entail enforcing international sanctions against proliferators. The third level would involve offensive military action against the weapons or production facilities of the proliferating state, as in the Gulf War, in pursuing a state's WMD program during the initial phases of a war. A fourth level is ballistic missile defense which is being carried out in several ways.

Capezzuto, Louis J. "Preemptive Strikes against Nuclear Terrorists and Their Sponsors: A Reasonable Solution." New York Law School Journal of International and Comparative Law 14, nos. 2-3 (1993): 375-99.

Discusses a doctrine of anticipatory self-defense against terrorist states.

Cottrell, Scott. "Identifying the Separate Governmental Agency Roles and Tasks in Countering the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction among Nonstate Actors (Terrorists) during Each Phase of the Counterproliferation Process." MMAS thesis, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1997.

This thesis by Major Cottrell, USMC, identifies the threat posed by nonstate actors/terrorists wielding WMD and defines the roles of the separate governmental agencies during each phase of the counterproliferation process. It also makes judgements as to whether current interagency relationships are adequate to counter this threat. [Available on DTIC summer 1997].

Beres, Louis Rene. "Preventing Nuclear Terrorism against the United States: 10 Vital Questions." Special Warfare (August 1996): 22-29.

Few publications have appeared for policy-makers who must create a strategy for dealing with nuclear terrorism. In order to achieve a fuller understanding of the risk calculations that terrorist organizations make and the factors most likely to affect those calculations, the author postulates ten questions to ask, e.g., "Are the risk calculations made by terrorist groups affected by their particular relations with host states?" and "Would the implementation of effective measures to counter nuclear terrorism require special patterns of international cooperation, and how might such patterns be created?". Also discussed is the role of special operations forces in coordinated pre-emption operations in this country and abroad.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Global Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials: Hearings before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs. 104th Cong., 2nd sess., 13, 20, 22, and 27 March 1996.

These hearings, conducted by Senators Roth and Nunn, include testimonies by John Deutch of the C.I.A. and Ambassador Rolf Ekeus of the U.N. Special Commission. The addendum to the hearings includes very informative documents by numerous specialists in the field. Among others they include:

- "The Threat of Nuclear Diversion: The Intelligence Community Response"

- "Chronology of Nuclear Smuggling Incidents"

- "Nuclear Nonproliferation: U.S. Efforts to Help Newly Independent States Improve Their Nuclear Material Controls"

- "The Nuclear Black Market"

- "Scientists, Engineers and Proliferation of Weapons Technology"

- "Weapons, Proliferation and Organized Crime: Russian Military Dimensions"

- "Reducing the Threat of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Proliferation and Terrorism"

The hearing of 27 March concentrates on responses to domestic terrorism and includes presentations by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (F.E.M.A.), F.B.I., Nuclear Emergency Search Team (N.E.S.T.), Department of Defense., and other agencies.

Concluding Remarks

If tomorrow morning the world awakens to the realization of the specter of nuclear (or biological or chemical) terrorism, will U.S. and international planning be adequate and coordinated enough to respond? With so many agencies and nations involved in countering this threat, will each entity know their precise role and be able to act on it in a moment's notice in a coordinated and efficient manner? More importantly, are all agencies involved doing enough collectively now to prevent this threat from ever being realized? Reading, evaluating and acting on problem areas and solutions set forth in the publications listed above will help formulate the most effective strategies to counter this worldwide threat.

Endnotes

1.This project was completed under the auspices of a grant from the Institute for National Security Studies (INSS), U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado.BACK

2.For citations to the literature on this topic published before 1992 see Timothy L. Sanz, "Nuclear Terrorism: Selected Research Materials," Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement (Winter 1992): 337-45 or the World-Wide Web site of the Foreign Military Studies Office at http://leav-www.army.mil/fmso/geo/geo.htm#Research. Citations from 1992 to the present found in this research may also be accessed electronically at the same address. BACK

3.This researcher wishes to thank the following people for their help in identifying some very pertinent sources of information on this subject: Mr. Christopher Fitz and the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies for kindly allowing the use of their excellent databases on nuclear proliferation issues to extract some pertinent citations concerning the security and smuggling of nuclear material from the former Soviet Union; Mr. James L. Ford, Senior Visiting Fellow at the Center for Counterproliferation Research of the National Defense University; and Mr. John Sopko, Deputy Chief Counsel to Senator Nunn on the Congressional Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. BACK