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THE YUGOSLAV CONFLICT: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Dr. Timothy Sanz
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS.

Originally published in European Security, vol. 1, number 3 (Autumn 1992), pp. 427-441.

A little more than a year has passed since Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence on 25 June 1991, and the ensuing conflict in this Balkan country was ignited. Not since World War II has Europe witnessed a worst crisis, marked by vicious fighting directly affecting the civilian population, reported atrocities on all sides, waves of refugees seeking refuge in neighboring countries, economic collapse, and a conflict spreading into what world diplomats feared might happen--into Bosnia-Hercegovina, a complex multi-ethnic region. Worst yet, diplomats fear the conflict could spill over into Kosovo and Macedonia and involve neighboring countries.

For those scholars, diplomats, analysts and other researchers closely monitoring the conflict, this article brings together in one place citations to the multitude of literature published just before the beginning of the conflict through July 1992. Those wanting a good overview of the causes of the conflict will want to read the articles by Gow (1) and Hartley (1) and for an overview of the security problems in the whole region--Brown (1). Concerning the complex problem of internal borders read Moore (1) and Marinovic (7).

Section 6 contains a wide variety of Russian opinion concerning the conflict. Russia's official policy position on Yugoslavia is spelled out by the Minister of Foreign Affairs Kozyrev, while Khimenko, Rodionov, Nekrasov, Bogomolov, Shchipanov and Chudakov all criticize this policy. Crow summarizes the struggle between moderates and conservatives on this foreign policy question, and Gorlov is critical of U.S. policy in the region.

Croatian views are presented in section 4, while diametrically opposed Serbian views are listed in section 7. In section 4 note especially the Jurdana article which expresses the fear that the UNPROFOR operation may be a means for Serbia to control those parts of Croatia which it currently occupies. Martinovic is critical of U.S. policy, and Klemencic presents an extensive five-part series on Croatian interpretations of creation of a Greater Serbia. Croatian disappointment in the international community is outlined by Baric. Section 7 contains Serbian views including those of Perazic who discusses international interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign state and a possible political solution to the crisis and Matovic who blames the European community for the war in Bosnia.

Researchers interested specifically in the conflict in Bosnia and Hercegovina should read two survey articles from February and June 1992 by Andrejevich (3) for background information leading up to the present situation. Moore (3) ("A New Phase") discusses recent opinion that the Serbs and Croats will partition Bosnia and Hercegovina and outlines the division of western policymakers over their goals in the region and how to achieve them.

Problems in the Kosovo region and the Albanian question are addressed by Moore (5). Avdic-Vllasi (5) provides a Croatian viewpoint of the region. For a thorough overview of problems confronting newly independent Macedonia, such as its diplomatic recognition, and relations with Greece and Albanian nationalists, read Perry (5).

Defense analysts will want to read both Gow (2) for a survey of the various military formations involved in the conflict, their political affiliations, and leading figures and Arbuckle (2) for discussion of Serbian and Croatian military strategies. Kipp (2) provides background information on the YPA and its role in the initial period of the conflict. Serbian assessments of Croatian forces are provided by Drecun (2), Pavlovic (2) and the Tanjug press release "Yugoslav Army on Strength" (2). A Croatian assessment of its own army, its organization, discipline, and future is made by Spegelj (2), chief inspector of the Croatian Army.

World diplomatic efforts have been intense in trying to solve the conflict politically. Member nations of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) have been involved in trying to avert civil strife since the summer of 1991 when a constitutional crisis arose in the country and threatened civil war. On the role of the CSCE consult Weitz (9) and Kornblum (3). The United Nations Security Council has been working toward establishing cease-fires and imposing trade sanctions. See Goshko (9), "UN Peace-Keeping" (9), and "Parties to Conflict" (9). Church (9) and Rodionov (6) discuss shortcomings in UN sanctions.

U.S. Government policy toward the conflict and the countries of the former Yugoslavia is outlined by U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs Johnson (8), by Secretary of State Baker (8) and in the article "US Recognizes Former Yugoslav Republics" (8). Glynn (1) and Lukic (1) criticize these policies.

In June U.S. policymakers began intense debates on the extent of U.S. military involvement in the conflict and how best to provide humanitarian aid to besieged Sarajevo. Gellman (8) reports on the conflicting and diverse views within the government and defense community.

ANALYSES OF THE CONFLICT AND POLITICAL SITUATION (SECTION 1)

"Alias Newgoslavia: Serbia." The Economist, 2 May 1992, 59-60. [Declaration of new nation by Serbia and Montenegro on 27 April 1992].

Beloff, Nora. "Eastern Reproaches." National Review, 13 April 1992, 44-45. [Discussion of Croatian and Slovenian nationalism].

"Brave Peacekeepers (United Nations Peacekeeping Forces)." The Economist, 11 January 1992, 12. [Editorial].

Brown, J. F. "Crisis and Conflict in Eastern Europe." RFE/RL Research Report, 29 May 1992, 1-9.

Bugajski, Janusz. "Yugoslavia's Lessons for the West." Christian Science Monitor, 6 January 1992, 18.

"Coming to a Yugoslav Republic Near You." National Review, 20 January 1992, 16. [Editorial]

Drakulic, Slavenka. "Yugoslavia Now--Europe Tomorrow?" The Nation, 14 October 1991, 429-31. [Editorial].

"The Futility of War (For All Their Military Might, the Serbs Have Won More of a Defeat Than a Victory)." The Economist, 18 January 1992, 14-15. [Editorial].

Gagnon Jr., V. P. " Yugoslavia: Prospects for Stability." Foreign Affairs (Summer 1991): 17.

Glenny, Misha. "Germany Fans the Flames of War." New Statesman and Society, 20 December 1991, 14-15.

________. "Bluff and Double Bluff." New Statesman and Society, 25 October 1991, 16-17.

________. "Inside the Gates of Hell." New Statesman and Society, 27 September 1991, 20.

Glynn, Patrick. "Yugoblunder." The New Republic, 24 February 1992, 15-17. [Concerns U.S. foreign relations to Yugoslavia]

Gow, James. "Deconstructing Yugoslavia." Survival (July/August 1991): 291-311.

Graff, James L. "The Butcher of the Balkans (Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic)." Time, 8 June 1992, 37+. [Cover story]

Hartley, Douglas. "The Yugoslavian Powder Keg." Defense and Diplomacy (August/September 1991): 30-32.

Hockenos, Paul. "Yugoslavia: The Wars Have Only Just Begun." New Statesman and Society, 6 December 1991, 16-17.

Kaplan, Robert D. "Yugo First." The New Republic, 2 September 1991, 10. [U.S. letting the EC shoulder the task of dealing with the Serbs and Croats].

Krauthammer, Charles. "Too Soon for Intervention." The Washington Post, 5 June 1992, file 611 Dialog Information Services, Inc. 2075776. [Editorial].

Lendvai, Paul. "Yugoslavia Without Yugoslavs; The Roots of the Crisis." International Affairs (London) (April 1991): 251.

"The Limits to Intervention (Just Because Yugoslavia Is in Europe Does Not Mean That Europeans Can End Its Civil War)." The Economist, 16 November 1991, 18. [Editorial].

Lukic, Reneo. "US Blundering in Yugoslavia." Journal of Commerce and Commercial, 3 January 1992, 4.

Magas, Branka. "The War in Yugoslavia." RUSI Journal (Winter 1991): 33.

Malcolm, Noel. "Yugoslavia at Breakpoint." National Review, 28 July 1991, 18.

Mamula, Branko. "Yugoslavia at a Time of Change--Her Future, Cohesion, and Security." RUSI Journal (Spring 1991): 39.

Mennard, Michael. "Origins of Animosity in Yugoslavia." The Washington Post, 6 June 1992, file 611 Dialog Information Services, Inc. 2075854. [Editorial].

Moore, Patrick. "The 'Question of All Questions': Internal Borders." Report on Eastern Europe, 20 September 1991, 34-39.

Rusinow, Dennison. "Yugoslavia: Balkan Breakup?" Foreign Policy (Summer 1991): 143.

Scammell, Michael. "What Price Yugoslavia?" The New York Times, 2 July 1991, A17.

"The Sense of a Senseless War." The Economist, 23 November 1991, 53.

Sikorski, Radek. "Irreconcilable Differences." National Review, 18 March 1991, 26-27.

Smolowe, Jill. "Why Do They Keep on Killing?" Time, 11 May 1992, 48-49.

Symorski, Radek. "War in Europe Again." National Review, 16 December 1991, 40-43. [Explanation of the intrinsic differences between Croats and Serbs].

"Yugoslavia: And Is No More." East European Reporter 5 (January/February 1992): 3-18.

ARMED FORCES IN THE CONFLICT (SECTION 2)

Arbuckle, Tammy. "Yugoslavia: Strategy and Tactics of Ethnic Warfare." International Defense Review (January 1992): 19-22.

Beaver, Paul. "Federal Army in Major Shake-up." Jane's Defence Weekly, 1 February 1992, 155.

________. "Fanning the Flames of Conflict: the Yugoslavian Republics Bid for Arms." Jane's Defence Weekly, 24 August 1991, 311.

Bebler, Anton. "The Armed Forces in the Yugoslav Conflict." International Defense Review (April 1991): 306-309.

________. "The Military and the Yugoslav Crisis." Seudosteuropa 40, no. 3-4 (1991): 127-144.

Brown, Michael. "Yugoslavia's Armed Forces--Order of Battle." Jane's Intelligence Review (August 1991): 366-373.

"Croatia's Arms Revealed." Jane's Defence Weekly, 5 October 1991, 599.

Drecun, Milovan. "Legions of Hatred and Evil." Narodna armija, 11 December 1991, 11 as translated under the heading "Strength, Organization of Armed Forces Viewed" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-005 (8 January 1992), 37-38. [Serbian assessment of Croatian forces].

Kostic, Branko. "Prema drzavi i vojska." [An army suitable for the country] Vojska I, 28 May 1992, 4. [On the creation of the Army of Yugoslavia].

Gow, James. "Military-Political Affiliations in the Yugoslav Conflict." RFE/RL Research Report, 15 May 1992, 16-25.

________. Legitimacy and the Military: The Yugoslav Crisis. London: Pinter Publishers, 1992.

Grizold, Anton. "Military Intervention in Slovenia." International Social Science Review 67 (Winter 1992): 8-12.

Gustenau, Gustav E. "Die Neuordnung des suedslawischen Raumes." Oesterreichische Militaerische Zeitschrift, Heft 3, 1992, 229-234.

________. "The Yugoslav Conflict: Where Will It End?" International Defense Review (December 1991): 1319.

Isby, David S. "Yugoslavia 1991--Armed Forces in Conflict." Jane's Intelligence Review (September 1991): 394-403.

Kipp, Jacob W. and Timothy L. Sanz. "The Yugoslav People's Army: Between Civil War and Disintegration." Military Review 71 (December 1991): 36-45.

Komnenovic, Uros and Bogdan Ivanisevic. "Tardy Recovery of Good Sense." Nin, 10 April 1992, 17-18 as translated under the heading "Chance of Depoliticizing JNA Examined" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-077 (21 April 1992), 38-41.

Lazanski, Miroslav. "Where Is the Future of the Yugoslav People's Army?" Politika, 29 March 1992, 5 as translated under the heading "Future of Yugoslav People's Army Discussed" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-069 (9 April 1992), 48-50.

Obradovic, Vuk. "Montenegro and Serbia: A Joint, Considerably Smaller Army." Politika, 26 March 1992, 1, 5 as translated under the heading "General Obradovic on Serbian-Montenegrin Army" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-072 (14 April 1992), 45-48.

Panic, Zivota. "Vojska je za mir." [The army is for peace] Novi front, XLVII, 19 June 1992, 3. [Statement of the Chief of the General Staff of the Army of Yugoslavia].

Pavlovic, R. "New State and Its Armed Forces: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Armed Forces Created." Politika, 28 April 1992, 7 as translated under the heading "New Armed Forces Structure Outlined" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-092 (12 May 1992), 40-41.

________. "What Is the Strength of the Croatian Army?" Politika, 29 December 1991, 6 as translated under the heading "Strength of Croatian Armed Forces Assessed" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-010 (15 January 1992), 51-52. [Serbian assessment].

Post, Tom. "The Army and 'the Dream of Greater Serbia'." Newsweek, 15 July 1991, 24. [Nationalist vision of the Yugoslav People's Army].

Spegelj, Martin. "There Is No Place for Politics in the Croatian Army." Vjesnik, 12 January 1992, 13 as translated under the heading "Spegelj on Status of Croatian Army" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-021 (21 January 1992), 34-38.

Steichen, Girard C. "Yugoslav Army's Stance in Crisis Sparks Debate." Christian Science Monitor, 28 March 1991.

Stephen, Chris. "Doing It for Love." New Statesman and Society, 10 January 1992, 12-13. [Foreign mercenaries in Croatia].

Vasic, Milos. "Where the National Armed Forces Pass." Vreme, 25 May 1992, 6-7, 9 as translated under the heading "Activities, Morale of Yugoslav Army Analyzed" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-111 (9 June 1992), 49-51.

"Yugoslav Army on Strength of Croatian Forces." Tanjug in English 2046 GMT 13 April 1992, as reported in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-072 (14 April 1992), 34-35.

BOSNIA-HERCEGOVINA (SECTION 3)

Andrejevich, Milan. "Bosnia and Herzegovina: In Search of Peace." RFE/RL Research Report, 5 June 1992, 1-11.

________. "More Guns, Less Butter in Bosnia and Herzegovina." RFE/RL Research Report, 13 March 1992, 10-17.

________. "Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Precarious Place." RFE/RL Research Report, 28 February 1992, 6-14.

Baker, James. "Statement on Bosnia-Hercegovina and Serbia (Secretary Baker Meets with Foreign Minister of Bosnia- Hercegovina)." US Department of State Dispatch, 20 April 1992, 311.

Borden, Anthony. "Balkan Brew." Nation, 27 April 1992, 545-46. [Editorial].

"Bosnia's Nightmare." The Christian Science Monitor, 22 April 1992, 20. [Editorial].

Branson, Louise. "Bosnia-Herzegovina Tests Army's Intent, UN Role in Region." The Christian Science Monitor, 10 April 1992, 7.

"Hello, War: Bosnia and Hercegovina." Economist, 11 April 1992, 51-2.

Kornblum, John C. "Continued Aggression in Bosnia-Hercegovina (Statement to the Plenary Session of the Helsinki Follow-up Meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), Helsinki, Finland, May 6, 1992)." US Department of State Dispatch, 11 May 1992, 372-375.

Kremic, Ermin. "Dance to the Notes of the Uzice Dance." Vjesnik, 3 April 1992, 5 as translated under the heading "Serb Plan to Occupy Bosnia 'Leaked Out'" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-077 (21 April 1992), 27-29. [Croatian assessment of the Bosnian situation].

Moore, Patrick. "A New Phase in the Bosnian Crisis?" RFE/RL Research Report, 31 July 1992, 1-7.

________. "Islamic Aspects of the Yugoslav Crisis." RFE/RL Research Report, 10 July 1992, 37-42.

________. "The International Relations of the Yugoslav Area." RFE/RL Research Report, 1 May 1992, 33-38.

"Patterns of Evil: Bosnia and Hercegovina." Economist, 16 May 1992, 58-59.

Stojadinovic, Ljubodrag. "What the Army Can Do in Bosnia." Politika, 29 March 1992, 6 as translated under the heading "Army Role in Bosnia Assessed" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-069 (9 April 1992), 50-51.

Sudetic, Chuck. "Yugoslav Army Taking Territory in Bosnia; A Serbian-led Effort for Partition Is Seen." The New York Times, 12 April 1992, 12.

Tudjman, Franjo. "We Welcome Bosnia-Hercegovina Sovereignty; There Are No Croatian Defense Force Members in the Croatian Armed Forces." Vjesnik, 6 April 1992, 1, 12 as translated under the heading "Tudjman Calls for European Intervention in Bosnia" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-079 (23 April 1992), 31-34.

"Yellow Card: Bosnia and Hercegovina." Economist, 25 April 1992, 56.

CROATIAN VIEWS OF THE CONFLICT (SECTION 4)

Baric, Stephanie. "Left Out in the Cold: Croatia Has Been Abandoned by the International Community Which Has Failed in Its Obligations as Outlined in the Geneva Conventions." Croatia Monitor 1, 19 July 1992, 9.

Biscevic, Hido. "The Horrifying War Scenario." Vjesnik, 5 March 1992, 1 as translated under the heading "Serbian 'Territorial Expansion' Tactics Noted" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-055 (20 March 1992), 31-32.

Jurdana, Srecko. "Resettlement Under the Surveillance of UNPROFOR." Croatia Monitor 1, 26 July 1992, 5. [Discusses Belgrade's interpretation of the UNPROFOR operation as a means towards a definite division of Croatia into "Croatian" and "Serbian" parts, the "Serbian" part being those areas currently under Serbian control].

________. "America as an Advocate of Serbia: False Rhetoric and Buying Time." Vecernji list, 20 February 1992, 2 as translated under the heading "Article Sees U.S. Policy Favoring Serbia" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-042 (3 March 1992), 33-34.

Klemencic, Mladen. "Ethnic Encirclement and Genocide." [A five-part series "Creation of a Greater Serbia"] Croatia Monitor 1, 28 June--26 July 1992.

Kuzmic, Peter. "Gratitude Without Enthusiasm." Danas, 14 April 1992, 35 as translated under the heading "Commentary Views U.S. Regional Policy" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-080 (24 April 1992), 25-26.

Martinovic, Stjepo. "What Is America After?" Vjesnik, 27 February 1992, 5 as translated under the heading " U.S. Policy on Croatia Criticized" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-118 (18 June 1992), 28.

Simunovic, Pjer. "Ruination of Belgrade Follows." Vecernji list, 1 June 1992, 15 as translated under the heading "U.S. Policy Shift, Serbian Sanctions Viewed" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-115 (15 June 1992), 37.

Tudjen, Branko. "Serbian-French Calculations: Between Symmetry and Versailles." Croatia Monitor 1, 19 July 1992, 3. [Assails the French Government's announcement of no intervention in the conflict].

Tudjman, Franjo. "Military Intervention Sought." Croatia Monitor 1, 19 July 1992, 1. [Letter from the Croatian President to UN Secretary General Boutros Ghali regarding Croatia's refugee crisis].

"Tudjman State of Nation Speech to Assembly." Zagreb Radio Croatia Network 0858 GMT 26 June 1992 as translated in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-125 (29 June 1992), 45-47.

"U.S. Recognition of Republic Welcomed; Tudjman Hails 'Positive Influence'." Zagreb Radio Croatia Network 1300 GMT 8 April 1992 as translated in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-069 (9 April 1992), 37.

Veselica, Marko. "The Disputable Agreement." Novi vjesnik, 1 June 1992, 7A as translated under the heading "UNPROFOR Causes 'Damage' for Republic" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-117 (17 June 1992), 30-31.

MACEDONIA AND KOSOVO (SECTION 5)

Avdic-Vllasi, Nadira. "War at the Gates." Vjesnik, 12 April 1992, 4 as translated under the heading "War Seen as Approaching Kosovo" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-077 (21 April 1992), 26-27. [Croatian assessment of the situation in Kosovo].

Green, Peter S. "Yugoslavia's Spreading War." U.S. News and World Report, 29 June 1992, 46. [Kosovo and Macedonia].

"Albanians in the Gray Zone; Deployment of Albanian Paramilitary Brigades in Kosovo--Composition and Size." Nova Makedonija, 28 June 1992, 11 as translated under the heading "Deployment of Albanian Paramilitary in Kosovo" in JPRS Report: East Europe, JPRS-EER-92-098, 43-44.

"Kosovo Albanians Demand Independence Recognition." Belgrade Radio Beograd Network 1400 GMT 7 February 1992 as reported in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-027 (10 February 1992), 39.

"Kosovo Republic President Warns of Civil War." Belgrade Radio Beograd Network 1400 GMT 20 March 1992 as reported in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-056 (23 March 1992), 43.

Moore, Patrick. "The 'Albanian Question' in the Former Yugoslavia." RFE/RL Research Report, 3 April 1992, 7-15.

Nikolic, D. "No Reason for Aggression." Borba, 31 March 1992, 7 as translated under the heading "Chief of Staff Discusses Former, Current Army" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-080 (24 April 1992), 36.

Perry, Duncan M. "Macedonia: A Balkan Problem and a European Dilemma." RFE/RL Research Report, 19 June 1992, 35-45.

Torov, I. "Macedonia Creates Defensive Armed Forces; Army Custom-Made for the State." Borba, 28 January 1992, 8 as translated in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-026 (7 February 1992), 38-39.

Washington Post Foreign Service. "For Greeks, Macedonia Evokes War." The Washington Post, 10 June 1992, file 611 Dialog Information Services, Inc., 2076606.

RUSSIAN VIEWS OF THE CONFLICT (SECTION 6)

Bogomolov, Pavel. "Hot Spots of the Planet--Yugoslavia: Commentator's Opinion." Pravda, 2 June 1992, as translated in The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, XLIV, no. 22 (1992): 2-3. [Author states that Russia may regret sanctions precedent].

Chudakov, Aleksandr. "Yugoslav Fracture--It Has Deprived the Balkans of Peace and Tranquility for a Long Time." Sovetskaya Rossiya, 21 March 1992, as translated in The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, XLIV, no. 12 (1992): 23.

Crow, Suzanne. "Russia's Response to the Yugoslav Crisis." RFE/RL Research Report, 24 July 1992, 31-35.

Gorlov, V. "Who Orders Where the Frontline Passes?" Komsomol'skaya pravda, 28 April 1992, as translated in The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, XLIV, no. 17 (1992): 18-19. [Critique of U.S. policy in Yugoslavia].

Khimenko, Anatoly. "Why Cut Off the Bough on Which Russian Diplomacy in the Balkans Has Been Sitting for Centuries?" Nezavisimaya gazeta, 9 June 1992, as translated in The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, XLIV, no. 23, 19. [Criticism of Russia's supporting economic sanctions against Yugoslavia].

Kozyrev, Andrey. "Whose Side Is Russia on in the Yugoslav Conflict?" Izvestiya, 8 June 1992, as translated in The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, XLIV, no. 22 (1992): 5-6. [Russia's Minister of Foreign Affairs on reasons for not supporting the Serbian regime].

Nekrasov, Igor. "Shall We Play War Games in the Balkans?" Moscow News, 21-28 June 1992, 12.

Rodionov, Boris. "The UN Sanctions Against Yugoslavia Do Not Take Russia's Interests into Account." Izvestiya, 4 June 1992, as translated in The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, XLIV, no. 22 (1992): 4.

"Russian Foreign Minister Views 'Yugoslav Crisis'." Belgrade Tanjug Domestic Service 2043 GMT 19 May 1992 as translated in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-099 (21 May 1992), 38.

Shalnev, Aleksandr. "The U.S. Has Reasserted Its leadership in the Balkan Crisis--This Is How the American Press Assesses the UN's New Sanctions Against Belgrade." Izvestiya, 1 June 1992, as translated in The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, XLIV, no. 22 (1992): 1-2.

Shchipanov, Mikhail. "Don't We Need Serbia?" Kuranty, 20 May 1992, as translated in The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, XLIV, no. 20 (1992): 19.

SERBIAN VIEWS OF THE CONFLICT (SECTION 7)

Acimovic, Ljubivoje. "US Policy Towards Yugoslavia and Serbia." Review of International Affairs, 1 December 1991, 11-14.

"Air Defense Chief on U.S. Military Intervention." Belgrade Tanjug Domestic Service 1049 GMT 1 June 1992 as translated in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-106 (2 June 1992), 34. [Views of Colonel General Bozidar Stevanvic, commander of the Air Force and Air Defense].

"Army Chief of Staff on Role in Bosnia." Belgrade Tanjug Domestic Service 1921 GMT 7 April 1992 as translated in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-068 (8 April 1992), 39-40.

Brboric, Branislav. "O mogucnosti hrvatsko-srpskog sporazuma." [On the Possibility of aCroatian-Serbian Agreement] Vojno Delo, XLIV (januar-april 1992): 175-181.

Bucar, Bojko. "International Aspects of the Yugoslav Reform and Independence for Slovenia." Review of international Affairs, 5 June 1991, 3-5.

"Documents on the Yugoslav Crisis." Review of International Affairs, 1 April 1992, 11-18. [Contains the following articles: "Address of Dr. Borislav Jovic in the Assembly of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Regarding the Arrival of the UN Peacekeeping Forces"; "Statement of Vladislav Jovanovic, Serbian Minister for Foreign Affairs at the Conference on Yugoslavia"; "Statement of Principles for New Constitutional Arrangements for Bosnia and Hercegovina"; and CSCE "Declaration on Yugoslavia."].

Marinovic, Dusan. "Gde su nase granice?" [Where are our borders?] Front: Ilustrovani list, XLVII, 20 mart 1992, 21-29. [Historical overview to the present].

Markovic, Ante. "Proposals for the Settlement of the Crisis and Regulation of Relations in the Yugoslav Community." Review of International Affairs, 20 June 1991, 7.

Matovic, Ivan. "Europe Is Tailoring Bosnia's Cap, But the People's Head Is Bursting." Narodna armija, 9 April 1992, 5 as translated under the heading "Europe Bears Responsibility for War in Bosnia" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-083 (29 April 1992), 52-54.

Ostojic, Mirko. "Foreign Factor in the Breaking Up of Yugoslavia." Review of International Affairs, 5 February 1992, 5-7.

Panic, Zivota. "Vojska je za mir." [The army is for peace] Novi front, XLVII, 19 jun 1992, 3. [Statement of the Chief of the General Staff of the Army of Yugoslavia].

Perazic, Gavro. "Medjunarodni karakter unutrasnjeg oruzanog sukoba u Jugoslaviji." [The International Aspect of the Internal Conflict in Yugoslavia] Vojno Delo, XLIV (januar-april 1992): 59-79. [Author discusses interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign state and a possible political solution to the conflict].

Petkovic, Ranko. "New Phase in the Evolution of the Yugoslav Crisis: Towards a Final Solution or Towards New Complications." Review of International Affairs, 1 April 1992, 1-4.

"Prime Minister Discusses UN Sanctions." Belgrade RTB Television Network 1853 GMT 2 June 1992 as translated in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-108 (4 June 1992), 66-68. [Interview with Serbian Prime Minister Radoman Bozovic].

Simic, Predrag. "Europe and the 'Yugoslav Issue'." Review of International Affairs, 5 February 1992, 1-5.

Tijanic, Aleksandar. "Assault on Dedinje." Nin, 29 May 1992, 18 as translated under the heading "Possibility of Foreign Intervention in Serbia" in Daily Report: East Europe, FBIS-EEU-92-119 (19 June 1992), 25-26.

U. S. ADMINISTRATION POLICIES (SECTION 8)

Baker, James. "Statement on Bosnia-Hercegovina and Serbia (Secretary Baker Meets With Foreign Minister of Bosnia Hercegovina." US Department of State Dispatch, 20 April 1992, 311.

________. "Violent Crisis in Yugoslavia." US Department of State Dispatch, 30 September 1991, 723-724.

Gellman, Barton. "Administration Is Sharply Divided on Whether to Expand Balkan Role." The Washington Post, 9 July 1992, A19.

________. "U.S. Is Prepared to Commit Combat Forces; Cheney Acknowledges Possibility of 'Some Military Resistance' from Serb Combatants." The Washington Post, 1 July 1992, A28.

________. "Defense Planners Making Case Against Intervention in Yugoslavia." The Washington Post, 13 June 1992, A16.

________. "U.S. Weighs Options on Yugoslavia; Emerging Proposal Sees Military Role." The Washington Post, 11 June 1992, A01.

Groshko, John M and Trevor Rowe. 'U.S. Agrees Conditionally to Participate in Sarajevo Airlift." The Washington Post, 17 June 1992, A27.

Johnson, Ralph. "US Efforts to Promote a Peaceful Settlement in Yugoslavia (Statement Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Washington, DC, October 17, 1991)." US Department of State Dispatch, 21 October 1991, 782-785.

________. "Yugoslavia: Trying to End the Violence." Foreign Policy Bulletin (November/December 1991): 39-44. [Views of the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs].

"US Recognizes Former Yugoslav Republics." US Department of State Dispatch, 27 April 1992, 331.

WORLD DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS (SECTION 9)

Church, George J. "A Chronic Case of Impotence (Sanctions Imposed on Serbia by the U.S., Europe, and the United States)." Time, 8 June 1992, 39+. [Cover story].

Goshko, John M. "U.N. Votes Curbs on Yugoslavia." The Washington Post, 31 May 1992, file 611 Dialog Information Services, Inc. 2074912.

"Hitch for the UN: Yugoslavia." The Economist, 1 February 1992, 51.

"Operation Balkan Storm?" Economist, 30 May 1992, 12-13. [International reaction to Serbia's military expansionism] [Editorial].

Painton, Frederick. "The Shock of Recognition." Time, 30 December 1991, 29. [Germany's role as mediator in Yugoslavia's war].

"Parties to Conflict in Yugoslavia Urged to Settle Their Disputes Peacefully." UN Chronicle 28 (December 1991): 35-36. [United Nations Security Council resolution].

Shorr, David. "European Community Intervenes While Group Ponders Yugoslav Crisis." Armed Forces Journal International (August 1991): 38.

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